Comprehensive analysis of vitreous humor chemokines in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy
- 120 Downloads
To compare the vitreous levels of chemokines in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. To find the relationship between stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and levels of vitreous chemokines.
The study involved 20 non-diabetic and 20 diabetic patients without clinical signs of DR (NDR) and 40 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The vitreous humor was collected and the levels of 40 chemokines were measured using magnetic color-bead-based multiplex assay.
The control group, NDR group, PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) group, and PDR with tractional retinal detachment group comprised 20, 20, 21, and 19 eyes, respectively. Only the concentration of CCL3 was significantly higher in the NDR group compared with the controls (p = 0.038). Twenty-five types of chemokines were statistically higher in the PDR with VH group in comparison to NDR group (all p < 0.05). All chemokines were statistically higher in the PDR with TRD group in comparison to NDR group (all p < 0.05) apart from 3 chemokines: GM-CSF, MIF, and CCL3(p = 0.086, p = 0.109, p = 0.094, respectively). The concentration of CCL21, CCL15 in PDR with TRD group was significantly higher compared with PDR with VH group, while other 36 chemokines were not significantly different between PDR with VH group and PDR with TRD group.
The inflammation gradually worsen with the progression of DR. CCL3 may be associated with the onset of early diabetic retinal damage, and CCL15 and CCL21 may be closely related to the formation of fibrovascular membrane and the progression of the end stage of DR.
KeywordsDiabetic retinopathy Type 2 diabetes mellites Chemokines Vitreous
This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 81500737) and Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (Grant Number 201607010343). The sponsors or funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethical standard statement
This study was performed in accordance to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local Research Ethics Committee of the Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital (Number 2016232A).
Informed consent was obtained from the subjects.
- 5.Agemy S, Scripsema N, Shah CM et al (2015) Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients. Retina J Retinal Vitreous Dis 35 (11):2353–2363Google Scholar
- 7.Semeraro F, Cancarini A, Dellomo R, Rezzola S, Romano M, Costagliola C (2015) Diabetic retinopathy: vascular and inflammatory disease. Exp Diabetes Res 2015:582060–582060Google Scholar
- 9.Vujosevic S, Simo R (2017) Local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy: an integrative approach. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 58(6)Google Scholar
- 10.Cheung CMG, Vania M, Ang M, Chee SP, Li J (2012) Comparison of aqueous humor cytokine and chemokine levels in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. Mol Vis 18:830–837Google Scholar
- 11.Dong N, Xu B, Wang B, Chu L (2013) Study of 27 aqueous humor cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without retinopathy. Mol Vis 19:1734–1746Google Scholar
- 12.Wu H, Hwang D, Song X, Tao Y (2017) Association between Aqueous Cytokines and diabetic retinopathy stage. J Ophthalmol 2017:1–8Google Scholar
- 13.Dimberg A (2010) Chemokines in angiogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 341:59–80Google Scholar
- 14.Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (2014) Diabetes Care 37(Supplement 1):S81Google Scholar
- 16.Ecker SM, Hines JC, Pfahler SM, Glaser BM (2011) Aqueous cytokine and growth factor levels do not reliably reflect those levels found in the vitreous. Mol Vis 17(14):2856–2863Google Scholar
- 19.Hang H, Yuan S, Yang Q, Yuan D, Liu Q (2014) Multiplex bead array assay of plasma cytokines in type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis 20:1137–1145Google Scholar
- 20.Elasrar AMA, Struyf S, Kangave D, Geboes K, Van Damme J (2006) Chemokines in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Eur Cytokine Netw 17(3):155–165Google Scholar
- 21.Capeans C, Mv DR, Lojo S, Salorio MS (1998) C-C chemokines in the vitreous of patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Retina J Retinal Vitreous Dis 18(6):546–550Google Scholar
- 25.Tsai T, Kuehn S, Tsiampalis N et al (2018) Anti-inflammatory cytokine and angiogenic factors levels in vitreous samples of diabetic retinopathy patients. PloS One 13 (3)Google Scholar
- 28.Xie M, Hu A, Luo Y, Sun W, Hu X, Tang S (2014) Interleukin-4 and melatonin ameliorate high glucose and interleukin-1β stimulated inflammatory reaction in human retinal endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. Molecular Vision 20:921–928Google Scholar