Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 797–805 | Cite as

Comprehensive analysis of vitreous humor chemokines in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy

  • Yunkao Zeng
  • Dan Cao
  • Honghua Yu
  • Yunyan Hu
  • Miao He
  • Dawei Yang
  • Xuenan Zhuang
  • Liang ZhangEmail author
Original Article



To compare the vitreous levels of chemokines in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. To find the relationship between stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and levels of vitreous chemokines.


The study involved 20 non-diabetic and 20 diabetic patients without clinical signs of DR (NDR) and 40 diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The vitreous humor was collected and the levels of 40 chemokines were measured using magnetic color-bead-based multiplex assay.


The control group, NDR group, PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) group, and PDR with tractional retinal detachment group comprised 20, 20, 21, and 19 eyes, respectively. Only the concentration of CCL3 was significantly higher in the NDR group compared with the controls (p = 0.038). Twenty-five types of chemokines were statistically higher in the PDR with VH group in comparison to NDR group (all p < 0.05). All chemokines were statistically higher in the PDR with TRD group in comparison to NDR group (all p < 0.05) apart from 3 chemokines: GM-CSF, MIF, and CCL3(p = 0.086, p = 0.109, p = 0.094, respectively). The concentration of CCL21, CCL15 in PDR with TRD group was significantly higher compared with PDR with VH group, while other 36 chemokines were not significantly different between PDR with VH group and PDR with TRD group.


The inflammation gradually worsen with the progression of DR. CCL3 may be associated with the onset of early diabetic retinal damage, and CCL15 and CCL21 may be closely related to the formation of fibrovascular membrane and the progression of the end stage of DR.


Diabetic retinopathy Type 2 diabetes mellites Chemokines Vitreous 



This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 81500737) and Guangzhou Science and Technology Program (Grant Number 201607010343). The sponsors or funding organizations had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standard statement

This study was performed in accordance to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local Research Ethics Committee of the Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital (Number 2016232A).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial People’s HospitalGuangdong Academy of Medical SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Shantou University Medical CollegeShantouChina

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