Light smoking is associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in Chilean young adults
- 108 Downloads
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. While cigarette smoking is associated with MetS in adults, young adulthood is an under-studied, susceptible period for developing long-term morbidity from MetS. We examined associations between cigarette smoking and MetS risk factors.
We studied 430 participants in Santiago, Chile who have been followed in a longitudinal cohort since infancy and assessed in adolescence for MetS. Participants were evaluated at 22 years from May 2015 to July 2017. Adiposity, blood pressure, and blood samples were measured. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. A continuous MetS score was calculated using z-scores. Participants self-reported cigarette and alcohol consumption using standardized questionnaires. We used multivariate regressions to examine associations between smoking and MetS risk factors, adjusting for sex, MetS in adolescence, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status.
Thirteen percent of participants had MetS and 50% were current smokers. Among smokers, mean age of initiation was 14.9 years and consumption was 29 cigarettes weekly. Smokers had larger waist circumferences, higher BMIs, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared to non-smokers. Being a current smoker was significantly associated with higher waist circumference (β = 2.82; 95% CI 0.63, 5.02), lower HDL (β = − 3.62; 95% CI − 6.19, − 1.04), higher BMI (β = 1.22; 95% CI 0.16, 2.28), and higher MetS score (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02, 0.24).
Cigarette smoking at light levels (mean < 30 cigarettes weekly) was associated with MetS risk factors in a sample of Chilean young adults.
KeywordsMetabolic syndrome Cigarette smoking Young adult Obesity Cholesterol Waist circumference
This project was supported by grants by the National Institutes of Health, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [HL088530, PI: Gahagan]. Evaline Cheng was also funded by the Global Health Institute and Global Health Academic Concentration at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. Dr. Correa was supported by the Advanced Human Capital Program, National Commission of Scientific and Technological Research (Santiago, Chile). The authors thank the study participants and their families for their continuous involvement.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 3.Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International. Circulation 120:1640–1645. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.109.192644 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Lorenzo C, Williams K, Hunt KJ, Haffner SM (2007) The National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III, International Diabetes Federation, and World Health Organization Definitions of the Metabolic Syndrome as Predictors of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:8–13. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-1414 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Fujiyoshi A, Miura K, Kadowaki S et al (2016) Lifetime cigarette smoking is associated with abdominal obesity in a community-based sample of Japanese men: the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA). Prev Med reports 4:225–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Graffar M (1956) Une méthode de classification sociale d’échantillons de population. Courrier 6:455–459Google Scholar
- 22.World Health Organization (2019) BMI classification. In: Global database body mass index. http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html
- 29.Departamento de Epidemiología del Ministerio de Salud de Chile (2017) Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2016-2017: Primeros resultados. http://epi.minsal.cl/resultados-encuestas/
- 33.Arsenault BJ, Lemieux I, Després JP et al (2009) HDL particle size and the risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. Atherosclerosis 206:276–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.01.044 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar