Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in South Indians with different grades of glucose tolerance
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To determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in an urban south Indian population in individuals with different grades of glucose tolerance.
A total of 1500 individuals [900 normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 300 prediabetes and 300 type 2 diabetes (T2DM)] who were not on vitamin B12 supplementation were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES) follow-up study. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical investigations, which included vitamin B12, insulin, homocysteine, HbA1c and serum lipids, were measured. Vitamin B12 ≤ 191 pg/ml was defined as absolute vitamin B12 deficiency and vitamin B12 > 191 pg/ml and ≤ 350 pg/ml as borderline deficiency.
The mean levels of vitamin B12 significantly decreased with increasing degrees of glucose tolerance (NGT 444 ± 368; prediabetes 409 ± 246; T2DM 389 ± 211 pg/ml, p = 0.021). The prevalence of absolute vitamin B12 deficiency was 14.9% while 37.6% had borderline deficiency. The prevalence of absolute vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly higher among individuals with T2DM (18.7%) followed by prediabetes (15%) and NGT(13.7%) [p for trend = 0.05]. The prevalence of vitamin B12 significantly increased with age (p < 0.05) and in those with abdominal obesity (p < 0.001). Men and vegetarians had twice the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to women and non-vegetarians, respectively. Among individuals with NGT, prediabetes and T2DM, vitamin B12 negatively correlated with homocysteine.
This study reports that the levels of vitamin B12 decreased with increasing severity of glucose tolerance.
KeywordsVitamin B12 Diabetes Glucose tolerance Prevalence South Indians
The authors acknowledge the Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India (RSSDI) for the financial support for the study through their research grant (Project No: RSSDI/HQ/Grants/2014/250). We also thank the participants for their cooperation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no relevant conflict of interest to disclose.
Ethical standard statement
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study which has done according to the ethical standards and in keeping with Helsinki Declaration of 2008 (ICH GCP).
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