The response of serum Glypican-4 levels and its potential regulatory mechanism to endurance training and chamomile flowers’ hydroethanolic extract in streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats
Glypican-4 (GPC-4) is a novel adipomyokine that enhances insulin signaling. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPLD1) is thought to release GPC-4 and is itself an insulin-regulated enzyme. Beneficial effects of exercise training and chamomile flowers extract (CFE) are shown through activation of PPARγ, which is a promising drug target in diabetes and associated with GPC-4 synthesis. This study investigated the effects of 14-week treadmill running and CFE on serum GPC-4, GPLD1, and insulin levels in streptozotocin–nicotinamide (STZ–NA)-induced diabetic rats.
Thirty-two STZ–NA-induced diabetic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), training (T), CFE treatment (CFE), and training plus CFE treatment (TCFE) groups. The training groups were exercised on treadmill 5 days/week and the treating groups were fed with 200 mg/kg/day CFE in drinking water for 14 weeks. Finally, serum GPC-4, GPLD1, and insulin levels were analyzed via sandwich ELISA.
Compared to the control group, serum insulin levels were significantly higher in the T, CFE, and TCFE groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively), while OGTT and serum GPLD1 levels were significantly lower in the T, CFE, and TCFE groups (all p < 0.001). Changes in serum GPC-4 levels were not significant. Serum GPLD1 levels were negatively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IS (both p < 0.001).
This study suggests that endurance training and CFE may downregulate serum GPLD1 levels in STZ–NA-induced diabetic rats, which associate with the serum insulin profile. However, the results show that endurance training and CFE may not cause serum GPC-4 adaptation in STZ–NA-induced diabetic rats.
KeywordsExercise training Chamomile Glypican-4 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D Insulin Type 2 diabetes
This research was supported by Bu-Ali Sina University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal experimental procedures were in accordance with institutional guidelines and approved by the ethical committee of laboratory animals Care at Bu-Ali Sina University (BASU), Hamedan, Iran.
Human and Animal rights
No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
For this type of study formal consent is not required.
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