Two-staged reverse sural flap: a versatile flap with consistent results in the soft tissue reconstruction of distal leg and heel defects—an institutional experience
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Reverse sural flap (RSF) is commonly used for soft tissue reconstruction of distal leg and heel defects. The classic method of flap transfer is the single-staged cutaneous islanded reverse sural flap (SS-RSF). This method is associated with variable flap complications notably the venous congestion. The other form of flap transfer is the two-stage reverse sural flap (TS-RSF), in which the pedicle of the flap is exteriorized in the first stage. Flap division and re-inset are done in the second stage. The aim of this paper is to review the flap outcomes and complications among the SS-RSF and TS-RSF reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the distal leg and heel.
This is a retrospective chart review of RSF being operated in a tertiary care hospital. The duration of study was 1.5 years. Twelve RSFs (6 SS-RSF, 6 TS-RSF) were done for soft tissue defects in the distal leg and heel. Wounds of various etiologies (traumatic, chronic, non-healing ulcers) were reviewed. Trauma was the most common etiology with 8 out of 12 (66.7%) patients. Large wounds, donor site damage and patients with peripheral vascular disease were excluded from the study.
Five out of six (83.3%) of TS-RSF healed uneventfully. However, 3 out of 6 (50%) of SS-RSF had partial flap necrosis. All complicated flaps healed well subsequently. No donor site complication was found in any of our patients.
Pedicle exteriorization in TS-RSF eliminates the element of venous congestion and eventually flaps necrosis. Less technical expertise and minimal morbidity are additional advantages of TS-RSF.
Level of evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study.
KeywordsDistal third leg Two-stage reverse sural flap Trauma Vascular pedicle Heel Lower limb reconstruction
No source of funding.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Not taken as this is a retrospective chart review.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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