The history of microsurgery

  • Andreas F. MavrogenisEmail author
  • Konstantinos Markatos
  • Theodosis Saranteas
  • Ioannis Ignatiadis
  • Sarantis Spyridonos
  • Marko Bumbasirevic
  • Alexandru Valentin Georgescu
  • Alexandros Beris
  • Panayotis N. Soucacos


Microsurgery is a term used to describe the surgical techniques that require an operating microscope and the necessary specialized instrumentation, the three “Ms” of Microsurgery (microscope, microinstruments and microsutures). Over the years, the crucial factor that transformed the notion of microsurgery itself was the anastomosis of successively smaller blood vessels and nerves that have allowed transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another and re-attachment of severed parts. Currently, with obtained experience, microsurgical techniques are used by several surgical specialties such as general surgery, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, gynecology, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and more. This article highlights the most important innovations and milestones in the history of microsurgery through the ages that allowed the inauguration and establishment of microsurgical techniques in the field of surgery.


Microsurgery Orthopaedics Plastics 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Konstantinos Markatos
    • 2
  • Theodosis Saranteas
    • 3
  • Ioannis Ignatiadis
    • 4
  • Sarantis Spyridonos
    • 4
  • Marko Bumbasirevic
    • 5
  • Alexandru Valentin Georgescu
    • 6
  • Alexandros Beris
    • 7
  • Panayotis N. Soucacos
    • 1
  1. 1.First Department of Orthopaedics, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensSchool of MedicineHolargos, AthensGreece
  2. 2.Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Second Department of Anesthesiology, First Department of Orthopaedics, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensSchool of MedicineAthensGreece
  4. 4.Department of Upper Extremity Surgery, Hand Surgery and MicrosurgeryKAT HospitalAthensGreece
  5. 5.Orthopaedic and Traumatology University Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia, School of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.Clinical Hospital of RehabilitationUniversity of Medicine Iuliu HatieganuCluj NapocaRomania
  7. 7.Department of Orthopaedics, University of IoanninaSchool of MedicineIoanninaGreece

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