Gunshot and blast injuries of the extremities: a review of 45 cases

  • Ioannis A. IgnatiadisEmail author
  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
  • Vasilios G. Igoumenou
  • Vasilios D. Polyzois
  • Vasiliki A. Tsiampa
  • Dimitrios K. Arapoglou
  • Sarantis Spyridonos
Original Article • TRAUMA - MICROSURGERY


Gunshot wounds and blast injuries constitute a major public health problem, as the increasing availability of firearms and explosives in conjunction with increasing violence in the city setting have brought this reality into civilian life. Extremities are most commonly involved; therefore, orthopedic surgeons should be trained to manage these types of injuries. Complete and accurate assessment of the injury itself is of great importance, as it will determine the severity and the risk of patients. High-risk injuries from missiles and injuries from explosions are associated with moderate or poor outcomes, major complications, and increased need for multiple surgical procedures. On the other hand, low-risk injuries frequently present optimal results and rather low morbidity. The role of microsurgery is essential, especially in the high- and very high-risk injuries, since complex and multiple reconstructions have to be performed, which include the utilization of free flaps, nerve grafts, and tendon transfers.


Gunshot Blast Explosives Fireworks Microsurgery 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis A. Ignatiadis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas F. Mavrogenis
    • 2
  • Vasilios G. Igoumenou
    • 2
  • Vasilios D. Polyzois
    • 3
  • Vasiliki A. Tsiampa
    • 1
  • Dimitrios K. Arapoglou
    • 1
  • Sarantis Spyridonos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Upper Limb and Hand Surgery and MicrosurgeryKAT HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.First Department of Orthopaedics, School of MedicineNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Third Department of Orthopaedics, School of MedicineNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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