Similar thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban and low molecular weight heparin but fewer hemorrhagic complications with combined intra-articular and intravenous tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty
To evaluate the efficacy of the combined intravenous and intra-articular administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to control the collateral effects and complications of rivaroxaban (RIV) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to compare thromboprophylaxis schemes with and without TXA, RIV and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).
Materials and methods
We prospectively studied 158 TKA patients from 2014 to 2018. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups. Group A (46 patients) was administered intravenous and intra-articular TXA and RIV postoperatively; group B (58 patients) was administered TXA as in group A and LMWH postoperatively; and group C (54 patients) was administered saline as in group A and RIV postoperatively. We evaluated blood loss, transfusion requirements and hemorrhagic complications.
Hct and Hb values significantly decreased in group C compared to groups A and B, without any difference between groups A and B. Suction drain blood volume output was significantly higher in group C compared to group A and B, without any difference between group A and B. Hemorrhagic complications were more common in group C. No patient experienced clinical findings of VTE.
Combined intravenous and intra-articular administration of TXA is safe and effective in TKA, with fewer hemorrhagic complications compared to placebo. Thromboprophylaxis with RIV and LMWH is similar.
KeywordsTotal knee arthroplasty Thromboprophylaxis Blood loss Transfusion Tranexamic acid Rivaroxaban
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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