Advertisement

European Spine Journal

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 241–249 | Cite as

The association of back muscle strength and sarcopenia-related parameters in the patients with spinal disorders

  • Hiromitsu ToyodaEmail author
  • Masatoshi Hoshino
  • Shoichiro Ohyama
  • Hidetomi Terai
  • Akinobu Suzuki
  • Kentaro Yamada
  • Shinji Takahashi
  • Kazunori Hayashi
  • Koji Tamai
  • Yusuke Hori
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the correlations between back muscle strength, trunk muscle mass, and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders.

Methods

This cross-sectional observational study included 230 consecutive patients with spinal disorders who visited our outpatient clinic (age range 65–92 years). We measured back muscle strength, handgrip strength, gait speed, and appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass using bioimpedance analysis. We classified the subjects into the sarcopenia, dynapenia, or normal stages in accordance with the guidelines set by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, and used the cutoff values reported in the guidelines set by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

Results

Back muscle strength was significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.39, P < 0.001), handgrip strength (males: r = 0.67, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.59, P < 0.001), and gait speed (males: r = 0.49, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.51, P < 0.001). The respective incidences of the sarcopenia, dynapenia, and normal stages were 16.4%, 26.7%, and 56.9% for males, and 23.7%, 50.9%, and 25.4% for females. Dynapenia was significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Back muscle strength in the normal group was significantly greater than that in the sarcopenic and dynapenic groups.

Conclusion

Back muscle strength is significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders. Back muscle strength in the sarcopenic stage is significantly lesser than that in the normal stage. Although sarcopenia is a multifaceted geriatric syndrome, spinal disorders might be one of the risk factors for disease-related sarcopenia.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved from Electronic Supplementary Material.

Keywords

Sarcopenia Dynapenia Back muscle strength Skeletal muscle Spinal disorders 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the surgeons and patients who contributed data to this study. The manuscript does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s). We thank Kelly Zammit, BVSc, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac), for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

586_2018_5858_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (155 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 155 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Zamboni M (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clark BC, Manini TM (2008) Sarcopenia ≠ dynapenia. J Gerontol 63:829–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, Chou MY, Chen LY, Hsu PS, Krairit O, Lee JS, Lee WJ, Lee Y, Liang CK, Limpawattana P, Lin CS, Peng LN, Satake S, Suzuki T, Won CW, Wu CH, Wu SN, Zhang T, Zeng P, Akishita M, Arai H (2014) Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 15:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imagama S, Matsuyama Y, Hasegawa Y, Sakai Y, Ito Z, Ishiguro N, Hamajima N (2011) Back muscle strength and spinal mobility are predictors of quality of life in middle-aged and elderly males. Eur Spine J 20:954–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kasukawa Y, Miyakoshi N, Hongo M, Ishikawa Y, Kudo D, Suzuki M, Mizutani T, Kimura R, Ono Y, Shimada Y (2017) Age-related changes in muscle strength and spinal kyphosis angles in an elderly Japanese population. Clin Interv Aging 12:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hongo M, Miyakoshi N, Shimada Y, Sinaki M (2012) Association of spinal curve deformity and back extensor strength in elderly women with osteoporosis in Japan and the United States. Osteoporos Int 23:1029–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirano K, Imagama S, Hasegawa Y, Wakao N, Muramoto A, Ishiguro N (2012) Impact of spinal imbalance and back muscle strength on locomotive syndrome in community-living elderly people. J Orthop Sci 17:532–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanimoto Y, Watanabe M, Sun W, Sugiura Y, Tsuda Y, Kimura M, Hayashida I, Kusabiraki T, Kono K (2012) Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 55:e9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zuniga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, Chen LK, Fielding RA, Martin FC, Michel JP, Sieber C, Stout JR, Studenski SA, Vellas B, Woo J, Zamboni M, Cederholm T (2014) Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing 43:748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R (2002) Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc 50:889–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yoshida D, Suzuki T, Shimada H, Park H, Makizako H, Doi T, Anan Y, Tsutsumimoto K, Uemura K, Ito T, Lee S (2014) Using two different algorithms to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 14(Suppl 1):46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Castillo EM, Goodman-Gruen D, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ, Wingard DL, Barrett-Connor E (2003) Sarcopenia in elderly men and women: the Rancho Bernardo study. Am J Prev Med 25:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshimura N, Muraki S, Oka H, Iidaka T, Kodama R, Kawaguchi H, Nakamura K, Tanaka S, Akune T (2017) Is osteoporosis a predictor for future sarcopenia or vice versa? Four-year observations between the second and third ROAD study surveys. Osteoporos Int 28:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanada K, Miyachi M, Tanimoto M, Yamamoto K, Murakami H, Okumura S, Gando Y, Suzuki K, Tabata I, Higuchi M (2010) A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamada M, Nishiguchi S, Fukutani N, Tanigawa T, Yukutake T, Kayama H, Aoyama T, Arai H (2013) Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14:911–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yoshida D, Shimada H, Park H, Anan Y, Ito T, Harada A, Suzuki T (2014) Development of an equation for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese older adults using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Geriatr Gerontol Int 14:851–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim M, Shinkai S, Murayama H, Mori S (2015) Comparison of segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the assessment of body composition in a community-dwelling older population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 15:1013–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fujimoto K, Inage K, Eguchi Y, Orita S, Suzuki M, Kubota G, Sainoh T, Sato J, Shiga Y, Abe K, Kanamoto H, Inoue M, Kinoshita H, Norimoto M, Umimura T, Koda M, Furuya T, Akazawa T, Toyoguchi T, Terakado A, Takahashi K, Ohtori S (2018) Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the measurement of appendicular skeletal muscle mass/whole fat mass and its relevance in assessing osteoporosis among patients with low back pain: a comparative analysis using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Spine J 12:839–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Evans JD (1996) Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Eguchi Y, Suzuki M, Yamanaka H, Tamai H, Kobayashi T, Orita S, Yamauchi K, Suzuki M, Inage K, Fujimoto K, Kanamoto H, Abe K, Aoki Y, Toyone T, Ozawa T, Takahashi K, Ohtori S (2017) Associations between sarcopenia and degenerative lumbar scoliosis in older women. Scoliosis Spinal Disord 12:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park S, Kim HJ, Ko BG, Chung JW, Kim SH, Park SH, Lee MH, Yeom JS (2016) The prevalence and impact of sarcopenia on degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Bone Joint J 98-B:1093–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Iwamura M, Kanauchi M (2017) A cross-sectional study of the association between dynapenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. BMC Geriatr 17:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Benjumea AM, Curcio CL, Duque G, Gomez F (2018) Dynapenia and sarcopenia as a risk factor for disability in a falls and fractures clinic in older persons. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 6:344–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miljkovic N, Lim JY, Miljkovic I, Frontera WR (2015) Aging of skeletal muscle fibers. Ann Rehabil Med 39:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson MA, Polgar J, Weightman D, Appleton D (1973) Data on the distribution of fibre types in thirty-six human muscles. An autopsy study. J Neurol Sci 18:111–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nakamura K (2008) A “super-aged” society and the “locomotive syndrome”. J Orthop Sci 13:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lexell J (1995) Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol 50(Spec No):11–16Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tanimoto Y, Watanabe M, Sun W, Hirota C, Sugiura Y, Kono R, Saito M, Kono K (2012) Association between muscle mass and disability in performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling elderly in Japan. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 54:e230–e233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Takayama K, Kita T, Nakamura H, Kanematsu F, Yasunami T, Sakanaka H, Yamano Y (2016) New predictive index for lumbar paraspinal muscle degeneration associated with aging. Spine 41:E84–E90CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiromitsu Toyoda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masatoshi Hoshino
    • 1
  • Shoichiro Ohyama
    • 1
  • Hidetomi Terai
    • 1
  • Akinobu Suzuki
    • 1
  • Kentaro Yamada
    • 1
  • Shinji Takahashi
    • 1
  • Kazunori Hayashi
    • 1
  • Koji Tamai
    • 1
  • Yusuke Hori
    • 1
  • Hiroaki Nakamura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations