The association of back muscle strength and sarcopenia-related parameters in the patients with spinal disorders
To evaluate the correlations between back muscle strength, trunk muscle mass, and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders.
This cross-sectional observational study included 230 consecutive patients with spinal disorders who visited our outpatient clinic (age range 65–92 years). We measured back muscle strength, handgrip strength, gait speed, and appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass using bioimpedance analysis. We classified the subjects into the sarcopenia, dynapenia, or normal stages in accordance with the guidelines set by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, and used the cutoff values reported in the guidelines set by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.
Back muscle strength was significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.39, P < 0.001), handgrip strength (males: r = 0.67, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.59, P < 0.001), and gait speed (males: r = 0.49, P < 0.001; females: r = 0.51, P < 0.001). The respective incidences of the sarcopenia, dynapenia, and normal stages were 16.4%, 26.7%, and 56.9% for males, and 23.7%, 50.9%, and 25.4% for females. Dynapenia was significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Back muscle strength in the normal group was significantly greater than that in the sarcopenic and dynapenic groups.
Back muscle strength is significantly correlated with trunk muscle mass and sarcopenia-related parameters in patients with spinal disorders. Back muscle strength in the sarcopenic stage is significantly lesser than that in the normal stage. Although sarcopenia is a multifaceted geriatric syndrome, spinal disorders might be one of the risk factors for disease-related sarcopenia.
KeywordsSarcopenia Dynapenia Back muscle strength Skeletal muscle Spinal disorders
We would like to acknowledge the surgeons and patients who contributed data to this study. The manuscript does not contain information about medical device(s)/drug(s). We thank Kelly Zammit, BVSc, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac), for editing a draft of this manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Zamboni M (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, Chou MY, Chen LY, Hsu PS, Krairit O, Lee JS, Lee WJ, Lee Y, Liang CK, Limpawattana P, Lin CS, Peng LN, Satake S, Suzuki T, Won CW, Wu CH, Wu SN, Zhang T, Zeng P, Akishita M, Arai H (2014) Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 15:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zuniga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, Chen LK, Fielding RA, Martin FC, Michel JP, Sieber C, Stout JR, Studenski SA, Vellas B, Woo J, Zamboni M, Cederholm T (2014) Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing 43:748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Fujimoto K, Inage K, Eguchi Y, Orita S, Suzuki M, Kubota G, Sainoh T, Sato J, Shiga Y, Abe K, Kanamoto H, Inoue M, Kinoshita H, Norimoto M, Umimura T, Koda M, Furuya T, Akazawa T, Toyoguchi T, Terakado A, Takahashi K, Ohtori S (2018) Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the measurement of appendicular skeletal muscle mass/whole fat mass and its relevance in assessing osteoporosis among patients with low back pain: a comparative analysis using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Spine J 12:839–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Evans JD (1996) Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
- 20.Eguchi Y, Suzuki M, Yamanaka H, Tamai H, Kobayashi T, Orita S, Yamauchi K, Suzuki M, Inage K, Fujimoto K, Kanamoto H, Abe K, Aoki Y, Toyone T, Ozawa T, Takahashi K, Ohtori S (2017) Associations between sarcopenia and degenerative lumbar scoliosis in older women. Scoliosis Spinal Disord 12:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Lexell J (1995) Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol 50(Spec No):11–16Google Scholar