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Anti-inflammatory activities of crude ethanol extract of Combretum zenkeri Engl. & Diels leaves

  • Chidera Peace Ogbu
  • Okagu Innocent Uzochukwu Email author
  • Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo
Original Article
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Abstract

Background

To augment orthodox anti-inflammatory drugs, which are scarce in some areas, local dwellers in some parts of Nigeria and Asia rely on herbal products such as Combretum zenkeri Engl. & Diels leaves for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Aim

This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of crude ethanol extract of C. zenkeri leaves (EECZ).

Materials and methods

EECZ was prepared and subjected to anti-inflammatory activity tests. The ability of EECZ to inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators in rats was used as a measure of its anti-inflammatory property. The inhibitory effects of EECZ on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, platelet aggregation and haemolysis of human red blood cells (HRBCs) were determined using standard methods. The phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity profile were also evaluated.

Results

EECZ at oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. and at 6 h inhibited egg albumin-induced rat paw oedema by 67.36% and 86.19% respectively. The extract similarly inhibited PLA2 activity causing 58.23% and 60.24% inhibition at concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/ml, respectively. At 100–800 μg/ml, EECZ also significantly inhibited haemolysis of HRBCs. In a concentration-dependent manner, EECZ significantly inhibited CaCl2-induced platelet aggregation. The presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenol, saponins, steroids, tannins and glycosides were detected in EECZ. The acute toxicity test showed that EECZ is safe at doses less than 5,000 mg/kg b.w.

Conclusion

This study shows that EECZ possess anti-inflammatory activities that could be through the inhibition of PLA2 activity and platelet aggregation, and membrane stabilization.

Keywords

Medicinal plants Combretum zenkeri Engl. & Diels Acute toxicity phytochemicals Phospholipase A2 Anti-platelet aggregation Membrane stabilization 

Abbreviations

EECZ

Ethanol extract of Combretum zenkeri Engl. & Diels

PLA2

Phospholipase A2

COX

Cyclooxygenase

LTs

Leukotrienes

LOX

Lipoxygenase

HRBC

Human red blood cell

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

PRP

Platelet-rich plasma

TXA2

Thromboxane A2

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. E.G. Anaduaka of Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka for his technical assistance and advice during the study.

Authors’ contributions

The authors’ contributions are as follows: N.O.F.C. and O.C.P. conceived the research idea, and designed the study, N.O.F.C., O.C.P. and O.I.U. performed the experiments, O.C.P and O.I.U analysed the data; O.C.P. and O.I.U. wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This study was funded by the authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Informed consent

Not applicable

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Medical Biochemistry, Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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