Advertisement

Glucose levels are stable in stored blood and plasma samples of cultured female African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

  • Onyinyechukwu Ada AginaEmail author
  • Chidozie Nwabuisi Okoye
  • Susan O. Dan-Jumbo
Original Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

Glucose is utilized by fish as one of the sources of energy. It is a physiological parameter useful in the determination of the general health condition of cultured fish. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of plasma and blood glucose concentration, stored at different temperatures (4 °C and 30 °C) for 72 h. Two (2) milliliters of blood was collected via the caudal abdominal venipuncture of 10 female catfishes purchased. The fish were 8 months of age and were kept in plastic ponds at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria. Blood was collected in blood tubes containing K2EDTA. Plasma was harvested from 1 mL of K2EDTA blood sample following centrifugation. Glucose concentration was determined using the Accu-Chek glucometer. Whole blood and plasma were analyzed immediately (0 h), and then after storage at 4 °C and 30 °C at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Comparisons to the whole blood samples (0 h) stored at 30 °C revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose concentration from the 24th hour to the 72nd hour. At 4 °C, blood glucose concentration was stable for up to 72 h. Plasma glucose level was stable for 24 h, and significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from the 48th hour. When compared with the 0 h plasma glucose concentration at 4 °C, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h plasma glucose concentration were observed. Therefore, whole blood and plasma stored at 4 °C for 72 h and plasma stored at 30 °C for 24 h can be used for glucose determinations in the female African catfish.

Keywords

Glucometer Glucose Plasma Whole blood 30 °C 4 °C Female catfish 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the personal contributions of all authors. No grant was made available for this study. We would like to thank Rebec farms and the Veterinary Clinical students on rotation in the Department of Veterinary Theriogenology and Reproductive diseases laboratory for their assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The research was carried out in accordance with the Ethics and Regulations guiding the use of animals and animal products, as approved by the University of Nigeria Senate committee on Medical and Research ethics.

References

  1. Agina OA, Ikechukwu PJ, Agina BC (2017) Stability of some clinical biochemistry parameters in equine serum/plasma stored at refrigerator and room temperatures: a preliminary study. Comp Clin Pathol 26:465–469.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-017-2399-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antwi-Baffour S, Quao E, Kyeremeh R, Mahmood SA (2013) Prolong storage of blood in EDTA has an effect on the morphology and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. Int J Biomed Sci Eng 1(2):20–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Astles JR, Petros WP, Peters WP, Sedor FA (1995) Artifactual hypoglycemia associated with hematopoietic cytokines. Arch Pathol Lab Med 119(8):713–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartonkova J, Hyrsl P (2016) Vojtek L (2016) Glucose determination in fish plasma by two different moderate methods. Acta Vet Brno 85:349–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buttarello M (2004) Quality specification in haematology: the automated blood cell count. Clin Chem Acta 346:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christopher M, O’Neill S (2000) Effect of specimen collection and storage on blood glucose and lactate concentrations in healthy, hyperthyroid and diabetic cats. Vet Clin Pathol 29(1):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collicutt NB (2014) The effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on the rate of serum glucose concentration decline in alpacas, horses, dogs and sturgeon. MSc Thesis. The University of Georgia. Athens, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Garrett RH, Grisham CM (2013) Biochemistry, 5th edn. Brooks/Cole, Cengage LearningGoogle Scholar
  9. Ihedioha JI, Onwubuche RC (2007) Artifactual changes in PCV, haemoglobin, and cell counts in bovine, caprine, and porcine blood stored at room and refrigerator temperatures. Vet Clin Pathol 36(1):60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ihedioha JI, Idika KI, Ogamba GN, Akam CJN (2008) Changes in the haematological values of avian blood samples stored at varying temperatures for a period of up to 72 hours. Comp Clin Pathol 17(2):73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kamalam BS, Medale F, Panserat S (2016) Utilisation of dietary carbohydrates in farmed fishes: new insights on influencing factors, biological limitations and future strategies. Aquaculture.  https://doi.org/10.1010/j.aquaculture.2016.02.007
  12. Melandez HE, Waddell TG, Cascante M (1996) The puzzle of the Krebs citric acid cycle: assembling the pieces of chemically feasible reactions, and opportunism in the design of metabolic pathways during evolution. J Mol Evol 43(3):293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Montel-Hagen A, Blanc L, Boyer Clavel M, Jacquet C, Vidal M, Sitbon M, Taylor N (2008) The Glut1 and Glut4 glucose transporters are differentially expressed during perinatal and postnatal erythropoiesis. Blood 112(12):4729–4738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nikinmaa M, Tiihonen K (1994) Substrate transport and utilization in fish erythrocytes. Acta Physiol Scand 152(2):183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nourrisson CL, Batisse M, Sapin V, Bouvier D (2010) Pseudo-hypoglycemia and hyperleukocytosis: a case report. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 68(4):490–494Google Scholar
  16. Sacks DB (2008) Carbohydrates. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds) Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry, 6th edn. St. Louis, Saunders Elsevier, p 373Google Scholar
  17. Singh M, Pandya R, Chandra S, Sharma SK (2015) Stability of clinical chemistry and haematological analytes in preserved plasma and blood obtained from Wistar rats. Scand J Lab Anim Sci 41(6):1–6Google Scholar
  18. Stockham SL, Scott MA (2008) Fundamentals of veterinary clinical pathology, 2nd edn. Blackwell Publishing, IowaGoogle Scholar
  19. Ybarra J, Isern J (2003) Leukocytosis-induced artifactual hypoglycemia. Endocr J 50(4):481–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Young D, Bermes E, Haverstick D (2008) Separation and storage of specimens. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds) Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, p 51Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Obstetrics and Reproductive Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  3. 3.Division of Developmental Biology, The Roslin InstituteUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations