Advertisement

Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1191–1196 | Cite as

Effects of aflatoxins on some reproductive hormones and composition of buffalo’s milk

  • Y. A. Amin
  • R. H. Mohamed
  • A. M. Zakaria
  • A. Wehrend
  • Hassan A. HusseinEmail author
Original Article
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding aflatoxins on some reproductive hormones and on the composition of buffalo milk. Forty lactating buffaloes fed total mixed rations (TMR), part of which was contaminated by fungi secreting aflatoxin. The animals were divided into two equal groups: aflatoxin high group (AHG), animals were fed TMR containing aflatoxin > 21.2 ppb, and aflatoxin low one (ACG), buffaloes were fed on TMR containing aflatoxin < 5 ppb. Blood concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone, estradiol 17ß, cortisol, and prolactin were assayed. The physiochemical indices of milk samples including fat%, solid not fat (SNF%), Slats%, protein%, total solids%, and pH were measured. The aflatoxins detected in dietary ration and milk of the buffaloes were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) respectively. The mean concentration of AFM1 in raw buffalo milk was (0.42 ± 0.043 ppb) in AHG, while there was (0.04 ± 0.002 ppb) in the ACG; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). Animals in AG, revealed a highly significant (P < 0.001) decrease in FSH, LH, and progesterone concentration compared with control animals. In contrast, estradiol 17 ß and cortisol increased significantly (P < 0.01) in AHG compared with ACG. Prolactin concentration showed a slight elevation with a non-significant difference. There were no significant differences in the milk parameters between the two groups. Aflatoxins disturb some endocrine functions of the reproductive organs, which could adversely affect buffalo’s productivity.

Keywords

Aflatoxicosis Reproductive hormones Milk composition Buffaloes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all workers in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aswan University for their help with this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of animal rights

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed according to the Egyptian Medical Research Ethics Committee (no. 14 – 126).

References

  1. Abraham GE (1981) The application of natural steroid radioimmunoassay to gynecologic endocrinology. In: Abraham GE (ed) Radioassay systems in clinical endocrinology, vol 475. Marcel Dekker, BaselGoogle Scholar
  2. Blankenship LT, Dickey JF, Bodine AB (1982) In vitro mycotoxin binding to bovine uterine steroid hormone receptors. Theriogenol 17(3):325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray GA, Ryan DH (2006) Mycotoxins, cancer and health. Pennington Center Nutrition Series, 1st Edn. Vol. 1. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, pp 331–362Google Scholar
  4. Castelli D, Seralini GE, Lafaurie M, Krebs B, Stora C (1986) Ovarian function during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 53:83–94Google Scholar
  5. Chappalwar AM, Devangare AA, Kodamlwar NK, Sahu RK (2014) Detection of extraneous water adulteration and physicochemical quality of market milk collected from different areas of Parbhani. Res J Anim Husb Dairy Sci 5(2):109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charoenpornsook K, Kavisarasai P (2006) Mycotoxins in animal feedstuffs of Thailand. KMITL Sci Technol J 6(1):25–28Google Scholar
  7. Cheeke PR, Shull LR (1985) Natural toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants. Avi Publishing Company, Inc: Westport, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  8. Driehuis F, Spanjer MC, Scholten JM, Te Giffel MC (2008) Occurrence of mycotoxins in maize, grass and wheat silage for dairy cattle in the Netherlands. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 1(1):41–50.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210802236927 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Saad ASA, Mahmoud HM (2007) Phytic acid exposure alters flatoxinB1-induced reproductive and oxidative toxicity albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Evidence-based complement. Altern Med 6:331–341Google Scholar
  10. Elsayed MS, Abd El-Fatah EN (2015) Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 in some milk products widely consumed by infants and children, marketed in Sharkia, Egypt. Global Veterinaria J 14(4):560–566Google Scholar
  11. European Commission (2006) Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuffs. Off J Eur Union 364:5–24Google Scholar
  12. Gimeno A (2004) Aflatoxina M1 no leite. Riscos para a saúde pública, prevenção e controlo. Alimentação Animal (Revista de la Associação Portuguesa dos Industriais de Alimentos Compostos para Animais (IACA)) 49:32–44Google Scholar
  13. Gonçalves BL, Gonçalves JI, Rosim RE, Cappato LP, Cruz AG, Oliveira CAF, Corassin CH (2017) Effects of different sources of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass on milk production, composition, and aflatoxin M1 excretion in milk from dairy cows fed aflatoxin B1. J Dairy Sci 100(7):5701–5708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Handan U, Güleray A (2005) Selenium protective activity against aflatoxin B1 adverse effects on Drosophila melanogaster. Braz Arch Biol Technol 48(2)Google Scholar
  15. Hasanzadeh S, Hossini E, Rezazadeh L (2011) Effects of aflatoxin B1 on profiles of gonadotropic (FSH and LH), steroid (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) and prolactinj hormones in adult male rat. Iran J Vet Res 12(4):332–336Google Scholar
  16. Hassan AA, Ragheb R, Rahmy R, Nariman A (2004) Pathological changes in cows spontaneously fed on some mycotoxins. Egypt. J. Comp.Path. & Clinic. Path. 17(1):282–293Google Scholar
  17. Ibeh I, Uraih N, Ogonor J (1994) Dietary exposure to aflatoxin in human male infertility in Benin City, Nigeria. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 39(4):208–214Google Scholar
  18. Ismail NH (2012) Effects of vitamin A supplementation on reducing toxicity of aflatoxin B1 on the ovary of young female rats. Life Sci. J Journal edition 2012; 9(3): 603–612Google Scholar
  19. Kabar B, Dobson AW, War I (2006) Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48(8):593–619Google Scholar
  20. Kolesarova A, Cpcarova M, Maruniakova N, Bakova Z, Toman R, Nath S, Alexander BT (2011) Deoxynivalenol-induced animal ovarian signaling: proliferation and apoptosis. J Microbiol Biotechnol Food Sci 1(3):323–332Google Scholar
  21. Kourousekos GD, Lymberopoulos AG (2007) Occurrence of aflatoxins in milk and their effects on reproduction. J Hellenic Vet Med Soc 58:306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar P, Mahato DK, Kamle M, Mohanta TK, Kang SG (2016) Aflatoxins: a global concern for food safety, Human Health and Their Management. Front Microbiol 7:2170Google Scholar
  23. Mahmoud R (2014) Seasonal pattern of aflatoxin M1 contamination in buffalo milk. J Agroaliment Process Technol 20(1):9–13Google Scholar
  24. Mahmoud MA, Ta G, Leil AZ, Mz AE (2013) Effect of mycotoxin on reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Assiut Vet Med J 59:203–213Google Scholar
  25. NRC: National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th. Ed. 2001; 242–248Google Scholar
  26. Omar SS (2016) Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurized milk and infant formula. Ital J Food Saf 5(3):5788Google Scholar
  27. Padhy N, Sathya ML, Varma TR (2009) Antral follicle size in the down regulated cycle and its relation to in vitro fertilization outcome. J Hum Reprod Sci 2:68–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Patterson DSP, Roberts BA (1970) The formation of aflatoxin B2a and G2a and their degradation products during the in vitro detoxification of aflatoxin by livers of certain avian and mammalian species. Food Cosmet Toxicol 8:527–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pickering AD, Pottinger P (1983) Seasonal and diet changes in plasma cortisol levels of the brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Gen Corn Endocrinol 49:232–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pirestani A, Toghyani M (2010) The effect of aflatoxin levels on milk production reproduction and lameness in high production holestin cows. Afr J Biotechnol 9(46):7905–7908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ray AC, Abbitt B, Cotter SR, Murphy MJ, Reagor JC, Robinson RM, West JE, Whitford HW (1986) Bovine abortion and death associated with consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts. J Am Vet Med Assoc 188(10):1187–1188Google Scholar
  32. Rebar RW, Erickson GF, Yen SSC (1982) Idiopathic premature ovarian failure: clinical and endocrine characteristics. Fertil Steril 37:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rose MP (1998) Follicular stimulating hormone international standards and reference preparations for the calibration of immunoassays and bioassays. Clinc Chem Acta 273:103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shaker EM, Elsharkawy EE (2014) Occurrence and the level of contamination of aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized and ultra-heat treated buffalo milk consumed in Sohag and Assiut, upper Egypt. J Environ Occup Sci 3:136–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sinha YN (1996) Structural variant of prolactin: occurrence and physiological significance. Endocrinol 16:345–369Google Scholar
  36. SPSS (2016) Statistics for Windows 20.0 ed.Google Scholar
  37. Tiemann US, Vanselow J (2003) Effect of the mycotoxin and beta zearalenol on regulation of progesterone synthesis in cultured granulose cells from procine ovaries. Reprod Toxicol 17(6):673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Uriah N, Ibeh IN, Oluwafemi F (2001) A study of the impact of aflatoxin on human reproduction. Afr J Reprod Health 5:106–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xing S, Cekan SZ, Diczfalusy U (1983) Validation of radioimmunoassay for estradiol-17β by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry and by a test of radiochemical purity. Clin Chim Acta 135:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  2. 2.Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  3. 3.Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  4. 4.Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Andrology of Large and Small AnimalsVet Med, JLU GiessenGiessenGermany
  5. 5.Department of Theriogenology, Faculty Veterinary MedicineAssiut UniversityAssiutEgypt

Personalised recommendations