In this report, concurrent infection of Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae, Hepatozoon canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a Labrador Retriever dog and its successful therapeutic management have been described. A 3-year-old female dog was presented with a history of anorexia, fever, lethargy, weakness, vomiting, black-coloured faeces and yellowish urine. Clinical and laboratory examination revealed pyrexia, icteric mucous membranes, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, anaemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopaenia, hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Hepatozoon canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections were confirmed by blood smear examination. Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae was confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Animal was stabilised with polyionic fluids, and therapy was started with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/Kg, SC, single dose), doxycycline (5 mg/kg, PO, bid) for 28 days, N-acetyl cysteine (30 mg/Kg, IV, SID) for 5 days and fipronil (0.25%) spray for topical use. Supportive therapy was done with plasma volume expanders, multivitamins, haematinics and hepatoprotectants. The animal showed complete recovery after 2 months of therapy.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal participants performed by any of the authors. The article reports a clinical case presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. All protocols followed were as per the guidelines from the standard textbooks in Veterinary Medicine and were in compliance with ethical standards.
Ajith Y, Nithya C, Arathy S, Jeny G, Meera K, Shemeema A, Siji SR, Junaid N, Tresamol PV (2016) Clinical management of a Labrador retriever dog concurrently infected with Leptospira interrogans, Babesia gibsoni and Dirofilaria repens. Comp Clin Pathol 25(6):1325–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alton GD, Berke O, Reid-Smith R, Ojkic D, Prescott JF (2009) Increase in seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis and its risk factors, Ontario 1998-2006. Can J Vet Res 73(3):167–175Google Scholar
Araujo AM, Reis EA, Athanazio DA, Ribeiro GS, Hagan JE, Araujo GC, Damiao AO, Couto NS, Ko AI, Noronha-Dutra A, Reis MG (2014) Oxidative stress markers correlate with renal dysfunction and thrombocytopenia in severe leptospirosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):719–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arun A, Reena KK, Rafiqui SI, Jithin MV, Sharma DK, Mahendran K, Garag R, Raina OK, Banerjee PS (2017) Molecular and parasitological evidence of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog: a case report. Ann Clinl Cytol Pathol 3(3):1059Google Scholar
Baneth G (2006) Hepatozoonosis. In: Greene E (ed) Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 698–705Google Scholar
Baneth G, Bourdeau P, Bourdoiseau G, Bowman D, Breitschwerdt E, Capelli G, Cardoso L, Dantas-Torres F, Day M, Dedet JP, Dobler G (2012) Vector-borne diseases-constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum. Parasit Vectors 5(1):55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borthakur SK, Deka DK, Bhattacharjee K, Sarmah PC (2014) Seroprevalence of canine dirofilariosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis of public health importance in dogs from India’s North East. Vet World 7(9):665–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassadou S, Rosine J, Flamand C, Escher M, Ledrans M, Bourhy P, Picardeau M, Quenel P (2016) Underestimation of leptospirosis incidence in the French West Indies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chirathaworn C, Inwattana R, Poovorawan Y, Suwancharoen D (2014) Interpretation of microscopic agglutination test for leptospirosis diagnosis and seroprevalence. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4:S162–S164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criado-Fornelio A, Buling A, Cunha-Filho NA, Ruas JL, Farias NAR, Rey-Valeiron C, Pingret JL, Etievant M, Barba- Carretero JC (2007) Development and evaluation of a quantitative PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon sp. Vet Parasitol 150:352–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dantas-Torres F (2010) Biology and ecology of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Parasit Vectors 3:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Andrade KQ, Moura FA, dos Santos JM, de Araujo OR, de Farias Santos JC, Goulart MOF (2015) Oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatic diseases: therapeutic possibilities of N- Acetylcystiene. Int J Mol Sci 16:30269–30308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dumler JS, Barbet AF, Bekker CP, Dasch GA, Palmer GH, Ray SC, Rikihisa Y, Rurangirwa FR (2001) Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and ‘HGE agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:2145–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewing SA, Panciera RJ (2003) American canine hepatozoonosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 16:688–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene CE (2006) Hepatozoonosis. In: Infectious diseases of the dog and cat, 3rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 698–711Google Scholar
Karen VE, Coburn J (2010) Leptospira as an emerging pathogen: a review of its biology, pathogenesis and host immune responses. Future Microbiol 5:1413–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ko AI, Goarant C, Picardeau M (2009) Leptospira: the dawn of the molecular genetics era for an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Nat Rev 7(10):736–747Google Scholar
Kohn B, Galke D, Beelitz P, Pfister K (2008) Clinical features of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in 18 naturally infected dogs. J Vet Intern Med 22:1289–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mylonakis ME, Koutinas AF, Baneth G, Polizopoulou Z, Fytianou A (2004) Mixed Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and presumptive Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol 33(4):249–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nyland TG, Mattoon JS (2002) Physical principles, instrumentation, and safety of diagnostic ultrasound. In: Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound, 2nd edn. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp 19–29Google Scholar
Roopali B, Mahadappa P, Satheesha SP, Sandeep H, Kasaralikar V, Patil NA (2017) Acute hepatozoonosis in dogs: a case report. J Parasit Dis 41(3):747–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spolidorio MG, Labruna MB, Zago AM, Donatele DM, Caliari KM, Yoshinari NH (2009) Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the state of Espı´rito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Vet Parasitol 163:357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes JE, Kaneene JB, Schall WD, Kruger JM, Miller R, Kaiser L, Bolin CA (2007) Prevalence of serum antibodies against six Leptospira serovars in healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 230(11):1657–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sykes JE, Hartmann K, Lunn KF, Moore GE, Stoddard RA, Goldstein RE (2011) 2010 ACVIM small animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention. J Vet Intern Med 25(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thakur N, Chethan GE, Akhilesh AL, Kumari P, Shehzad M, Rajesh JB, Mahendran K, De UK, Banerjee PS (2018) Therapeutic management of Hepatozoon canis induced acute hepatitis in a dog. J Entomol Zool Stud 6(4):1037–1039Google Scholar