Effects of medicinal plant powder as feed additives on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of Coturnix japonica against avian influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine virus

  • Hassan HabibiEmail author
  • Najmeh Ghahtan
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of Gracilaria corticata (Gracilaria), Sargassum cristaefolium (Sargassum), Rhus coriaria (sumac), and Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel powdered on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immune responses of Japanese quails against avian influenza and Newcastle disease killed vaccine virus. A total of 360 one-day-old Japanese quails were randomly distributed into nine dietary treatments with 4 replicates (10 quail/rep). Control group (C) received the diet free of medicinal plants supplementation and the other eight treatments received, 0.5 and 2% medicinal plants and algae-dried powder in diet for the 15 days at the end of experiment (in days 27–42). Live body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass characteristics, and immune response evidences were recorded. G. corticata, S. cristafolium, R. coriaria, and P. granatum peel had significant (p < 0.05) effects on FCR. Some of carcass parameters were increased (p < 0.05) in S. cristafolium and G. corticata diet–supplemented quail compared with those fed on R. coriaria and P. granatum peel diets. P. granatum peel reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (p < 0.05). We also recorded evidence that R. coriaria and G. corticata powders increased the antibody titers of avian Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine. As a result, we concluded that G. corticata, S. cristafolium, R. coriaria, and P. granatum peel could be used as growth- and health-promoting food additives by using a 0.5 and 2% supplementation to foods in the diets of hatchling Japanese quail with no observed negative effects.


Avian influenza Japanese quail Carcass parameters Newcastle disease 



We appreciate the improvements in English usage made by Phil Whitford through the Association of Field Ornithologists’ program of editorial assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Sciences, Agriculture and Natural Resources CollegePersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran

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