Comparative study on hemato-biochemical alterations and selected acute phase protein response in native sheep experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotypes 10 and 24
- 23 Downloads
Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted viral disease of sheep, other domestic, and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), a prototype species of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. The study was designed to determine the hematological and biochemical alterations and acute phase protein response in BTV sero-negative sheep experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotype-10 and 24. The BTV-infected group comprising of 18 animals, 6 each inoculated with 6 ml of clarified virus containing 1 × 106/ml TCID50 of BTV-10 or 24 by intradermal route, 6 animals inoculated with equal volumes of BTV-10 and 24 and 4 animals with 6 ml of mock infected culture fluid served as uninfected control group. The blood and serum samples were analyzed at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, and 16 days post-infection (DPI). Hematological findings in this study showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells in BTV-10 infected group, a significant increase in circulating neutrophils decrease in lymphocytes in all the infected groups, in PCV in BTV-24 and co-infected groups, and RBC count in only BTV-24-infected group at 11 DPI. The results of serum biochemical analyses of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exhibited increased levels in BTV-24 and co-infected animals. A significant rise in the serum level of creatine kinase (CK) was observed from 3 DPI in the infected groups. Serum levels of total proteins decreased significantly at 11 DPI in BTV-24 infected animals. Significant increase in CRP and fibrinogen levels was observed at 7 and 11 DPI in the infected groups. The significantly decreased levels of TLC, hemoglobin, PCV, CK, and acute phase proteins such as fibrinogen and CRP indicated the inflammatory changes associated with the virus replication and the consequent vascular damage and inflammatory changes in the tissues. Further, the variations in the hemato-biochemical and acute phase response observed between the two serotypes BTV-10 and 24 probes to the difference in virulence and pathogenesis of the serotypes in infected sheep.
KeywordsBTV-10 serotype BTV-24 serotype Experimental infection Hematology Serum biochemistry Acute phase response
We thank Director, Joint Directors and Head, Department of Pathology, ICAR-IVRI for providing all the facilities to carry out this research work.
This study was supported by research grant from AINP-BT (Grant No. 3(8)/98 ASR-IV, dated 23 March 2001) and DBT-BBSRC (Grant No. BT/IN/Indo-UK/FADH/46/SM/2013, dated 8 September 2014), CADRAD, ICAR-IVRI, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted. Experimental animals used for this research have been approved by the IAEC (ICAR-IVRI) and CPCSEA with Ethical Clearance Certificate’s Number: 25/21/2017-CPCSEA dated 20 October 2017.
- Babu YH (1985) Haematological studies of bluetongue disease in sheep. Indian Vet J 62:828–831Google Scholar
- Howerth EW, Greene CE, Prestwood AK (1988) Experimentally induced bluetongue virus infection of white-tailed deer: clinical, pathologic and gross pathologic changes. Am J Vet Res 49:1906–1913Google Scholar
- Luedke AJ, Bowne JG, Jochim MM, Doyle C (1964) Clinical and pathologic features of bluetongue in sheep. Am J Vet Res 25:963Google Scholar
- Mishra S (1992) Studies on the characterisation and properties of a field isolate of bluetongue disease virus. M.V.Sc. thesis submitted to deemed university, I.V.R.I., Izatnagar, UPGoogle Scholar
- Reddy YKM, Manohar BM, Pandey AB, Reddy YN, Prasad G, Chauhan RS (2010) Development and evaluation of inactivated pentavalent adjuvanted vaccine for bluetongue. Indian Vet J 87(5):434–436Google Scholar
- Reed LJ, Muench H (1938) A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Hyg 27:493–497Google Scholar
- Saminathan M, Rana R, Ramakrishnan MA, Karthik K, Malik YS, Dhama K (2016) Prevalence, diagnosis, management and control of important diseases of ruminants with special reference to Indian scenario. J Exp Biol Agric Sci 4(3S):338–367Google Scholar
- Sanchez-Cordon PJ, Pleguezuelos FJ, Perez de Diego AC, Gomez-Villamandos JC, Sanchez-Vizcaino JM, Ceron JJ, Tecles F, Garfia B, Pedrera M (2013) Comparative study of clinical courses, gross lesions, acute phase response and coagulation disorders in sheep inoculated with bluetongue virus serotype 1 and 8. Vet Microbiol 166:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh KP, Umeshappa CS, Ahmed KA, Pandey AB (2008) Haematological and biochemical responses in native sheep experimentally infected with bluetongue virus serotype-23. Ind J Anim Sci 78:8–12Google Scholar
- Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ (2018) Role of C-reactive protein at sites of inflammation and infection. Front Immunol 9Google Scholar
- Thomas JS (2000) Overview of plasma proteins. In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 891–898Google Scholar
- Umeshappa CS, Singh KP, Channappanavar R, Sharma K, Nanjundappa RH, Saxena M, Singh R, Sharma AK (2011) A comparison of intradermal and intravenous inoculation of bluetongue virus serotype 23 in sheep for clinico-pathology, and viral and immune responses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 141(3–4):230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wright IM (2014) Serological and genetic characterisation of putative new serotypes of bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus isolated from an Alpaca (Doctoral dissertation, North-West University)Google Scholar