Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1055–1060 | Cite as

The effect of tramadol and meloxicam, alone and in combination on oxidative stress status in dogs

  • Saeed NazifiEmail author
  • Aidin Shojaee Tabrizi
  • Saeedeh Mohammadi
  • Hoda Erjaee
  • Abdollah Mirzaie
Original Article


Management of pain by different therapeutic agents has always been one of the most important components in clinical veterinary care. Concerns about various side effects of analgesics drugs have lead the pain relief to combination drug therapy. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of combined tramadol and meloxicam on oxidative stress status in dogs. Twenty clinically healthy dogs were randomly divided into four groups and administered with placebo, tramadol, meloxicam, and combined meloxicam with tramadol for 10 days. The antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in blood samples which were collected in days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In dogs administrated with tramadol, the antioxidant enzymes and TAC were significantly decreased and MDA level was significantly increased. However, meloxicam group showed no alteration in the levels of GPx, CAT, TAC, and MDA. Moreover, administration of meloxicam with tramadol improved oxidative stress status through inhibiting lipid peroxidation, increasing antioxidant enzymes, and TAC. These results indicate that meloxicam is effective in reducing oxidative stress induced by tramadol. Therefore, combination of tramadol and meloxicam is desired due to their potential analgesic result and ameliorating effect on oxidative stress status.


Tramadol Meloxicam Oxidative stress Dog 


Funding information

This study is financially and technically supported by the Research Council of Shiraz University and School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University (Grant No. 71-GR-VT-5).

Compliance with ethical standards

The experiment was performed under the approval of the state committee on animal ethics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (IACUC no: 4687/63). Also, the recommendations of European Council Directive (86/609/EC) of November 24, 1986, regarding the protection of animals used for experimental purposes were considered.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran

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