Clinical observation, acute phase protein levels, and histopathological changes of mammary gland in experimentally infected goats with Staphylococcus aureus
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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of mastitis in small ruminants, and studies on the potential application of acute phase proteins (APPs) in disease biomarkers and understanding the disease mechanism in mastitis affecting small ruminants are limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine clinical, histopathological changes and serum concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) associated with experimentally induced mastitis using S. aureus. Left mammary quarter in the does was challenged with sterile Ringers buffered salt solution as group 1 (control animals; n = 6) and S. aureus (1.5 × 108 cfu/ml) as group 2 (inoculated does; n = 5) respectively. The animals were monitored at various time intervals for the signs of mastitis and serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. Majority of the animals in the inoculated group showed typical signs of acute mastitis characterized with fever, warm, painful, and swollen mammary gland as early as 24-h post-inoculation (PI). There was significant increased (p < 0.05) in the levels of Hp and SAA in the serum of inoculated animals at 24-h post-inoculation. Histopathological changes in the mammary gland of the inoculated goats included generalized and severe infiltration of the interstitial spaces with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), severe necrosis of secretory cells, and hyperplastic epithelial and luminal lining. In conclusion, inoculation of S. aureus intramammarily leads to an increment of Hp and SAA at 24-h PI which indicates that both APPs played crucial role as biomarkers in detection and monitoring of S. aureus mastitis in goats.
KeywordsMastitis Goats Acute phase proteins Serum amyloid A Haptoglobin Histopathology
The authors would wish to thank technical staff at the University of Veterinary Hospital, UPM, Drs. Ahmad Afifi Abdul Ghani, and Muhammad Syafiq Shahudin for their help throughout the experimental study.
This work was supported by the Geran Putra Penyelidik Muda (GP-IPM) Universiti Putra Malaysia (GP-IPM/2014/9426200).
Compliance with ethical standards
The experiment was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM/IACUC/AUP-R089/2015). All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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