Ultrastructural changes on fertile and infertile hydatid cysts induced by conventional and solid lipid nanoparticles of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide
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Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a serious public health problem worldwide, is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). Despite recent progress in the CE medical treatment, this subject still remains as a priority of research. Albendazole (ABZ) is a drug of choice for the treatment of hydatidosis. Its use as an antiparasitic agent with the most efficacy is limited by the lack of water solubility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare in vitro efficacy of free and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of ABZ and albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) against fertile and infertile hydatid cysts in terms of ultrastructural changes. ABZ-SLN and ABZSO-SLN were produced by micro emulsification and high shear homogenization technique and the physicochemical characterization of the product was evaluated. Then, the structural alterations occurring due to treatment with free and SLN formulations against fertile and infertile sheep liver hydatid cysts were assessed by optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations. Untreated control groups revealed the typical appearance of hydatid cysts; in contrast, all treated cysts exhibited degenerative alterations with various rates. Loading ABZ and ABZSO into SLN leads to greater structural changes. In both prepared formulations, better efficacy was observed in fertile and small cysts.
KeywordsHydatidosis Albendazole Albendazole sulfoxide SLN TEM
The authors extend their thanks to the Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences and Department of Pharmaceutics of the College of Pharmacy. The authors are grateful to Dr. Masoud Foroutan for his helpful consultation and comments on the manuscript.
Conceptualization: A. Rafiei, S. Soltani, and M.R. Abbaspour; data analysis: S. Soltani and M. Sagha Kahvaz; investigation: A. Rafiei, S. Soltani, Z. Ramezani, and M.R. Abbaspour; methodology: S. Soltani, Z. Ramezani, M.R. Abbaspour, and A. Jelowdar; project administration: A. Rafiei and Z. Ramezani; supervision: A. Rafiei and Z. Ramezani; writing—original draft: A. Rafiei1, S. Soltani, Z. Ramezani, M.R. Abbaspour, and A. Jelowdar; writing—review and editing: A. Rafiei1, S. Soltani, and Z. Ramezani.
This work was financially supported by grant No. OG-93124 from the vice chancellor for research affairs of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS), Ahvaz, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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