Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1037–1044 | Cite as

Clinicopathological and mineral changes associated with dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis

  • Onyeka Chidiebele NwufohEmail author
  • Nurudeen Ayinde Sadiq
  • Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe
Original Article


The clinicopathological features including mineral level of dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis were evaluated to understand the pathogenesis of infestation in order to propose an effective treatment plan. Twenty healthy dogs were recruited for the study and were divided into two groups after environmental adjustments. Group A dogs were scabies free while group B dogs were housed with scabies infested dogs. The PCV, HB, RBC, WBC, platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, TP, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, BUN, and glucose levels were examined for 6 weeks following establishment of mites. Zinc, selenium, copper, manganese, and sulfur levels were assayed at the 6th week of infestation. Hematological values of infested dogs differed significantly (P < 0.05) from healthy dogs with exceptions to monocytes and eosinophils. The eosinophil lymphocyte ratio, monocyte lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio of 3 weeks post infestation did not significantly differ from 6 weeks post infestation while platelet lymphocyte ratio at week 3 were elevated and significantly differed from counts at week 6. TP, albumin, and globulin values were only altered significantly (P < 0.05) from the 4th week of infestation. ALP values were affected by the 6th week following infestation while creatinine values were significantly lower in infested dogs. Zinc, copper, and selenium levels significantly decreased during infestation while manganese and sulfur amounts in study dogs showed no variations. Study established decreased zinc, copper, and selenium levels in scabies; hence, supplements with these trace elements should be incorporated to the treatment plan of mange in dogs.


Scabies Dogs Hematology Minerals Serum Infestation 



We sincerely acknowledge and appreciate profoundly the support of Ademakinwa Josephine and Adeyeyi Ayomikun of the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of University of Ibadan. We also appreciate Olawusi, O.O., Ajala, F. E, and Ilesanmi G. for their helpful roles in the weekly collection of blood samples.

Authors’ contributions

Investigations and data gathering were carried out by O. C Nwufoh. The study was supervised by N.A. Sadiq and B.O. Emikpe. The manuscript was written by O.C. Nwufoh and edited by B.O. Emikpe and N.A. Sadiq. All authors finally approved final version of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The ethics and conducts governing and justifying animal use, animal rights, animal safety and animal wellbeing was accepted by The University of Ibadan’s Animal Care, Use and Research Ethics Committee UI-ACUREC 17-0027.


  1. Aitken ID (2007) Disease of sheep, 4th edn. Black well Publishing, Edinburgh, pp 326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arlian LG, Ahmed M, Vyszenki-Moher DL (1988) Effects of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (Acari: Sarcoptidae) on blood indexes of parasitized rabbits. J Med Entomol 25:360–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arlian LG, Arlian MS, Morgan CM, Vyszenski-Moher DL (1995) Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs. J Parasitol 81(5):698–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bawejapayasvi, Agarwal BK, Sharma VK, Alex A (2013) Analysis of serum copper, zinc and Iron levels in psoriasis and psoriasis with hypertension patients Int J Innov Res Dev. Vol (2), Issue (3), Page 544Google Scholar
  5. Beigh SA, Soodan JS, Singh R, Raina R (2013) Plasma zinc, iron, vitamin A and hematological parameters in dogs with sarcoptic mange. Israel J Vet Med 68(4)Google Scholar
  6. Chandy J, Nambi AP, Jeyraja K, Gowri B (2000) Clinicopathological and biochemical studies in scabies in dogs. Indian Vet Journal 77:755–757Google Scholar
  7. Dadlich H, Khanna R (2008) Pathological, hemato-biochemical and immunological studies of cutaneous ectoparasitosis in dogs. Proceedings, the 15th Congress of FAVA-OIE Joint Symposium on Emerging DiseasesGoogle Scholar
  8. Dede S, Deger Y, Deger S (2003) Serum profile of calcium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc in healthy and lice infested goats. Indian vet journal 80:150–151Google Scholar
  9. Doumas BT, Watson WA, Biggs HG (1971) Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clin Chem 31:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fain A (1968) Étude de la variability é de Sarcoptes scabiei avee une revision des Sarcoptidae. Acta Zool Pathol Antverp 47:1–196Google Scholar
  11. Hafeez UA, Zia-Ud-Din S, Zafar I, Abdul J, Zahida T (2007) Prevalence of sheep mange in District Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan) and associated hematological/biochemical disturbances. Int J Agric Biol 9(6):917–920Google Scholar
  12. Jiang Y, Zheng W, Long L (2007) Brain magnetic resonance imaging and manganese concentrations in red blood cells of smelting workers: search for biomarkers of manganese exposure. NeuroToxicology 28:126–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Khatak N, Khurana R (2011) Mineral status in dogs affected with sarcoptic mange. Haryana Vet 50:46–48Google Scholar
  14. Kido N, Kamegaya C, Omiya T, Wada Y (2011) Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated free ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange. Parasitol Int 60:425–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kolmer JA, Spanbling EH, Robinson HW (1951) Approved laboratory technique. Appleton Century Craft, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Kozat S, Ekin S, Kaya A, Agaoglu Z (2005) Concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and magnesium in cattle with natural Psoroptes bovis scabiei. Indian vet journal 82:947–949Google Scholar
  17. Lower KS, Medleau LM, Hnilica K, Bigler B (2001) Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs. Vet Dermatol 12:315–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lubran MM (1978) The measurement of total serum protein by the Biuret method. Ann Clin Lab Sci 8(2):106–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McMillan EM, Rowe D (1983) Plasma zinc in psoriasis in relation to surface area involvement. Br J Derm 100:1301–1305Google Scholar
  20. Mehmet HO, Mahmut ZK, Oguzhan BE, Aysun K (2018) Complete blood count alterations due to opiod use: what about the lymphocyte-related ratios, especially in monocyte to lymphocyte ratios and platelet to lymphocyte ratios. J Immunoass Immunochem 39(4):365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meshram PV, Ambade RB, Moregaonkar SD, Rohi RR (2014) Clinicopathologic changes and therapeutic management of scabies in a pug dog. Indian J Canine Pract 6(2)Google Scholar
  22. Nwufoh OC, Sadiq NA, Emikpe BO (2018) Establishment of infestivity model for Sarcoptes scabiei var canis in Nigerian dogs. J Parasit Dis 42:2018–2526.
  23. Parmar AJ, Singh V, Chaudhary SS, Prajapati BH, Sengar YS (2005) Hematobiochemical studies on sarcoptic mange in camel (Camelus dromedarus) in Banaskantha district (North Gujarat). J Parasit Dis 29(1):71–73Google Scholar
  24. Pence DB, Windberg LA, Pence BC, Sprowls R (1983) The epizootiology and pathology of sarcoptic mange in coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Texas. J Parasitol 69:1100–1115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcliff KW, Constable PD (2007) Veterinary medicine: a text book of the diseases of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses, 10th Edn. London: Bailliere Tindall, Pp. 1608-1609Google Scholar
  26. Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356:233–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Rehbein S, Visser M, Winter R, Trommer B, Matthes HF, Maciel AE, Marley SE (2003) Productivity effects of bovine mange and control with ivermectin. Vet Parasitol 114:267–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. SAS, SAS/STAT (2004) User’s guide (release 8.03). SAS Institute, Cary North Carolina, USAGoogle Scholar
  29. Schalm OW (1986) Veterinary Haematology, 4th edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Sharma RL, Peer FU, Bhat TK (1990) Antiparasitic activity of ivermectin against natural Psorptes communis var. ovis infestation in Kashmir Merino Sheep. Indian Vet J 67:264–266Google Scholar
  31. Singh I, Khurana R, Khokar RS (2003) Serum biochemical alterations in mangy camels. Haryana vet 42:48–50Google Scholar
  32. Socha J, Kochanowicz E, Karpińska J, Soroczyńska M, Jakoniuk Z, Mariak MH, Borawska (2014) Dietary habits and selenium, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant status in the serum of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Nutr J 13, p. 62Google Scholar
  33. Swanson GLK, Hallgren R, Johansen E, Lindth U (1985) Reduced zinc in peripheral blood cells from patients with inflammatory connective tissue disease. Inflammation 9:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Templeton AJ, McNamara MG, Šeruga B (2015) Prognostic role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in solid tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 106(6):dju124. Print 2014 Jun.Google Scholar
  35. Ujjwal D, Dey S (2010) Evaluation of organ function and oxidant/antioxidant status in goats with sarcoptic mange. Trop Anim Health Prod 48(8):1663–1668Google Scholar
  36. Vasudevan B, Ragul J, Madheswaran R, Muralimanohar B, Balachandran C (2004) Cytological and histopathological diagnosis of canine skin tumors. Indian J Vet Pathol 2004; 28:130–133Google Scholar
  37. Wall R, Shearer D (1997) Veterinary entomology, 1st edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Walton SF (2010) The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to scabies. Parasite Immunol 32(8):532–540PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary ParasitologyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary PathologyUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

Personalised recommendations