Combined effects of dietary bovine lactoferrin, Lactobacillus plantarum, and xylooligosaccharide on hemato-immunological and digestive enzymes of silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) fingerlings
- 15 Downloads
A 6-week study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the following eight experimental diets, which varied in bovine lactoferrin (LF), xylooligosacharide (XOS), and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) as probiotic silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) juveniles including control (diet 1), 400 mg kg−1 LF + 5 g kg−1 XOS (diet 2), 400 mg kg−1 LF + 10 g kg−1 XOS (diet 3), 400 mg kg−1 LF + 1 × 106 CFU g−1 LP (diet 4), 800 mg kg−1 LF + 5 g kg−1 XOS (diet 5), 800 mg kg−1 LF + 10 g kg−1 XOS (diet 6), and 400 mg kg−1 LF + 1 × 106 CFU g−1 LP (diet 7). Growth performance and humoral immune responses were not affected by different experimental groups (P > 0.05). Hematological parameters including red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, and hematocrit increased by supplementing diets with different combinations of immunostimulants (P < 0.05). Fish fed diet supplemented with 800 mg kg−1 LF + 5 g kg−1 XOS had highest total protease (1.0 ± 0.1 U mg protein−1) and α-amylase (34.9 ± 2.3 mg protein−1) activities (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that diets supplemented with selected levels of LF, XOS, and L. plantarum could not improve growth performance and humoral immunity, however improved hematological and digestive enzyme activities in S. hasta fingerlings.
KeywordsHematology Intestine flora Immunostimulants Prebiotic Probiotic Sparidae
Authors are grateful to the director (Mr. Mojtaba Zabayeh Najafabadi) and staff of the Mariculture Research Station, Sarbandar, Iran, for providing the necessary facilities for conducting this project.
This article is extracted from the project recorded under code number of 93027514 and financially supported by Iran National Science Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- Azimirad M, Meshkini S, Ahmadifard N, Hoseinifar SH (2016) The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Fish Shellfish Immunol 54:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Barta O (1993) Veterinary clinical immunology laboratory (Monographs in Animal Immunology) Vol 2, Section 3. Bar-Lab Inc Publications, pp 24–25Google Scholar
- Dawood MAO, Koshio S, Ishikawa M, Yokoyama S (2015a) Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and ß-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. Fish Shellfish Immunol 45:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawood MAO, Koshio S, Ishikawa M, Yokoyama S, El Basuini MF, Hossain MS, Nhu TH, Dossou S, Moss AS (2016) Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major. Fish Shellfish Immunol 49:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dawood MAO, Koshio S, Esteban MA (2017) Beneficial roles of feed additives as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review. Rev Aquac 0:1–25Google Scholar
- Ellis AE (1990) Serum antiproteases in fish and lysozyme assays. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Roberson BS, Van Muiswinkel WB (eds) Techniques in fish immunology. SOS Publications, Fair Haven NJ, pp 95–103Google Scholar
- Eslamloo K, Morshedi V, Azodi M, Ashouri G, Ali M, Iqbal F (2012a) Effects of starvation and re-feeding on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition on tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii). World J Fish Mar Sci 4(5):489–495Google Scholar
- Geraylou Z, Souffreau C, Rurangwa E, D’Hondt S, Callewaert L, Courtin CM, Delcour JA, Buyse J, Ollevier F (2012) Effects of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) on juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) performance, immune responses and gastrointestinal microbial community. Fish Shellfish Immunol 33:718–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guzman-Villanueva LT, Tovar-Ramirez D, Gisbert E, Cordero H, Guardiola FA, Cuesta A, Meseguer J, Ascencio-Valle F, Esteban MA (2014) Dietary administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan and probiotic strain Shewanella putrefaciens, single or combined, on gilthead seabream growth, immune responses and gene expression. Fish Shellfish Immunol 39:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kawakami H, Hiratsuka M, Dosako S (1988) Effects of iron-saturated lactoferrin on iron absorption. Agric Biol Chem 52:903–908Google Scholar
- Khademi F, Sajadi MM, Sourinejad I, Daryai R, Kondor AT (2013) Effects of dietary Protexin supplementation on growth performance and survival of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta). J Aquac (In Persian) 3:65–78Google Scholar
- Mohammadian T, Alishahi M, Tabandeh MR, Ghorbanpoor M, Gharibi D (2017) Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on growth performance, gut microbial flora and digestive enzymes activities in Tor grypus (Karaman, 1971). Iran J Fish Sci 16:296–317Google Scholar
- Mohapatra S, Chakrabory T, Prusty AK, Das P, Paniprasad K, Mohanta KN (2012) Use of different microbial probiotics in the diet of rohu, Labeo rohita fingerlings: effects on growth, nutrient digestibility and retention, digestive enzyme activities and intestinal microflora. Aquac Nutr 18:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Morshedi V, Agh N, Marammazi J, Noori F, Mohammadian T (2015) Effects of dietary lactoferrin on growth performance, feed utilization, hematological and non-specific immune responses in sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) fingerling. J Anim Environ (In Persian) 2:189–198Google Scholar
- Morshedi V, Agh N, Marammazi J, Noori F, Mohammadian T (2016a) Effects of different levels of dietary lactoferrin on digestive enzymes, body composition and intestine bacterial flora of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) fingerling. Vet J (In Persian) 113:65–74Google Scholar
- Morshedi V, Agh N, Marammazi J, Noori F, Mohammadian T (2016b) Evaluation of digestive enzymes activities, carcass biochemical composition and gut bacterial flora in sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) fingerlings in response to different dietary xylooligosacharide levels. Anim Physiol Dev (In Persian) 8:37–47Google Scholar
- Morshedi V, Agh N, Marammazi J, Noori F, Mohammadian T (2016c) Effects of dietary xylooligosacharide on growth and feed utilization, hematological and non-especific immune parameters of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) fingerlings. J Mari Biol (In Persian) 26:69–82Google Scholar
- Nekoubin H, Sudagar M (2012) Assessment of the effects of synbiotic (biomin imbo) via supplementation with artificial diet (with different protein levels) on growth performance and survival rate in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). World J Zool 7:236–240Google Scholar
- Pagheh E, Marammazi JG, Agh N, Nouri F, Sepahdari A, Gisbert E, Mozanzadeh MT (2017) Growth performance, hemato-immunological responses and digestive enzymes activities in silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) fed dietary bovine lactoferrin. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 10(3):399–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Estrada U, Satoh S, Haga Y, Fushimi H, Sweetman J (2009) Effects of single and combined supplementation of Enterococcus faecalis, mannanoligosaccharide and polyhydrobutyric acid on growth performance and immune response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Suisanzoshoku 57:609–617Google Scholar
- Talpur AD, Munir MB, Mary A, Hashim R (2014) Dietary probiotics and prebiotics improved food acceptability, growth performance, haematology and immunological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings. Aquaculture 426-427:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Doan H, Hoseinifar SH, Tapingkae W, Tongsiri S, Khamtavee P (2016) Combined administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate boosted immunomodulatory, disease resistance and growth enhancing effects of Lactobacillus plantarum in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Shellfish Immunol 58:678–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Worthington C (1991) Worthington enzyme manual related biochemical. USA, FreeholdGoogle Scholar
- Yokoyama S, Koshio S, Takakura N, Oshida K, Ishikawa M, Gallardo Cigarroa FJ, Catacutan MR, Teshima S (2006) Effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin on growth response, tolerance to air exposure and low salinity stress conditions in orange spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Aquaculture 255:507–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar