Advertisement

Hematologic reference intervals for the Italian Heavy Draft horse

  • Arianna MiglioEmail author
  • Chiara Morelli
  • Carmen Maresca
  • Andrea Felici
  • Andrea Di Giambattista
  • Maria Teresa Antognoni
Original Article

Abstract

Established breed-specific reference intervals (RIs) are important for monitoring the health status of horses. Breed-specific RIs have been evaluated in horses and other animal breeds, but there are no studies on breed-specific RIs for Italian Heavy Draft horse (IHDH). The aim of this study was to determine hematologic RIs for the IHDH living in central Italy. The comparison between different physiological status (pregnancy) and age (foals and adults) have been executed. Inclusion criteria were established for selection of subjects and for blood collection and handling. Blood samples were collected from 309 apparently healthy horses (mares, stallions and foals). Complete blood count (CBC) was performed on Sysmex-XT1800iV hematology at the Teaching Veterinary Hospital of the University of Perugia. RIs for IHDH were determined by using well-described, modern analytical and statistical methods as recommended by the CLSI and QALS guidelines. Hematologic RIs for the IHDH are reported. Differences between hot-blooded, cold-blooded, and warm-blooded horses are evident. Significant differences have been found for five analytes (WBC, MCHC, PLT, monocytes, basophils) between pregnant and non-pregnant mares and 12 analytes (RBC, Hgb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils) between foals and adults. This is the first study reporting the hematologic RIs in the IHDH. The results suggest that breed-specific RIs should be used for IHDH due to the difference with published data regarding cold-blooded, hot-blooded, and warm-blooded breeds. Moreover, significant variations of hematological analytes have been found between subjects with different physiological status and age.

Keywords

Breed-specific Equine Hematology Sysmex XT-1800 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for and use of animals were followed.

References

  1. Antognoni MT, Birettoni F, Miglio A, Lalli P, Porciello F, Mangili Pecci V (2010) Monoclonal gammopathy associated with multiple myeloma and visceral leishmaniasis in the dog: a comparison of two cases. Vet Res Comm 34:S97–S101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Associazione Nazionale Cavallo Agricolo Italiano (National Association of Italian Heavy Draft Horse). http://www.anacaitpr.it/. Accessed November 9, 2018
  3. Aros K, Carrasco J, Briones R, Tadich TA (2017) Haematological and serum biochemical reference values for urban-working equines in Chile. Austral J Vet Sci 49:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazzano M, Giannetto C, Fazio F, Rizzo M, Giudice E, Piccione G (2014) Physiological adjustments of haematological profile during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early post partum period in mares. Anim Reprod Sci 149:199–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Friedrichs KR, Harr KE, Freeman KP, Szladovits B, Walton RM, Barnhart KF, Blanco-Chavez J (2012) ASVCP reference interval guidelines: determination of the novo reference intervals in veterinary species and other related topics. Vet Clin Pathol 41:441–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Grondin TM, Dewitt SF (2010) Normal hematology of the horse and donkey. In: Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ (eds) Schalm’s veterinary hematology, 6th edn. Blackwell Publishing LTD., Ames, pp 821–828Google Scholar
  7. Harvey JW, Asquith RL, McNulty PK, Kivipelto J, Bauer JE (1984) Haematology of foals up to one year old. Equine Vet J 16(4):347–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Knottenbelt D (2006) Vital sings, normal values. In: Knottenbelt D (ed) Saunders equine formulary. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, USA, p 7Google Scholar
  9. Lilliehook I, Tvedten H (2009) Validation of the Sysmex XT-2000iv hematology system for dogs, cats, and horses. I. Erythrocytes, platelets, and total leukocyte counts. Vet Clin Pathol 38(2):163–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mantovani R, Pigozzi G, Bittante G (2005) The Italian Heavy Draught horse breed: origin breeding program, efficiency of the selection scheme and inbreeding. In: Bodo NL, Alderson IL, Langlois B (eds) Conservation genetics of endangered horse breeds, 11th edn. Wageningen Academinc Publishers, Wageningen, pp 155–162Google Scholar
  11. Mantovani R, Sartori C, Pigozzi G. Genetics of temperament and productive traits in the Italian Heavy Draught horse breed. Paper presented at the 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, 1–6 August 2010. Leipzig, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  12. Mantovani R, Sartori C, Pigozzi G (2013) Retrospective and statistical analysis of breeding management on the Italian Heavy Draught horse breed. Animal 7(7):1053–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Miglio A, Antognoni MT, Maresca C, Moncada C, Riondato F, Scoccia E, Mangili V (2015) Serum protein concentration and protein fractions in clinically healthy Lacaune and Sarda sheep using agarose gel electrophoresis. Vet Clin Pathol 44:564–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Miglio A, Antognoni MT, Miniscalco B, Caivano D, Lepri E, Birettoni F, Mangili V (2014 Dec) Acute undifferentiated leukaemia in a dog. Aust Vet J 92(12):499–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Miglio A, Moscati L, Scoccia E, Maresca C, Antognoni MT, Felici A (2018) Reference values for serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, lysozyme, zinc and iron in healthy lactating Lacaune sheep. Acta Vet Scand 60:46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Overmam J (2018) Red blood cells. Leukocytes. Platelets. In: Pusterla N, Higgins J (eds) Interpretation of equine laboratory diagnostics, 1st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp 113–132Google Scholar
  17. Paden L, Gomericic T, Duras M, Arbanasic H, Galov A (2014) Hematological and serum biochemical reference values for the Posavina and Croatian coldblood horse breeds. Acta Vet-Beograd 64(2):200–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Passamonti F, Veronesi F, Cappelli K, Capomaccio S, Reginato A, Miglio A, Vardi DM, Stefanetti V, Coletti M, Bazzica C, Pepe M (2015) Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection–case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 22(2):247–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Pritchard JC, Burn CC, Barr ASR, Whay HR (2009) Haematological and serum biochemical reference values for apparently healthy working horses in Pakistan. Resw Vet Sci 87:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sample SH, Fox KM, Wunn D, Roth E, Friedrichs KR (2015) Hematological and biochemical reference intervals for adult Fresian horses from North America. Vet Clin Pathol 44:194–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Satuè K, Hernànadez A, Munoz A. Physiological factors in the interpretation of equine hematological profile. Hematology Science and Practice, March 2, 2012; 10.5772/38961Google Scholar
  22. Spada E, Antognoni MT, Proverbio D, Ferro E, Mangili V, Miglio A (2015) Haematological and biochemical reference intervals in adult Maine Coone cat blood donors. J Feline Med Surg 17:1020–1027CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Wittwer F. Manual de patologìa clinica veterinaria (Manual of Veterinary Clinical Pathology). 2nd ed. Imprenta Amèrica, Valdiva, Chile. 2012Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle MarchePerugiaItaly

Personalised recommendations