Chicken infectious anemia: emerging viral disease of poultry—an overview
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Due to the emerging status of chicken infectious anemia in Africa and its similarity to infectious bursal disease, it was necessary to review this disease. Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) is an immunosuppressive pathogen and thus, causes great economic losses to the poultry industry. It is caused by chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV), a member of the genus Gyrovirus, and it primarily affects progenitor cells of erythroid and myeloid series. The disease is characterized by aplastic anemia, atrophy of the thymus, and immunosuppression. It is transmitted horizontally and vertically, and chicken is considered to be the natural host. Chicken infectious anemia can be diagnosed by virus isolation and detection and serology including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), immunoperoxidase tests, and virus neutralization test (VNT). The control measures for CIA included vaccination and good poultry health and management practices.
KeywordsChicken infectious anemia Gyrovirus Immunosuppression ELISA Vaccination
Special appreciation goes to Prof. S. B. Oladele (Veterinary Pathology) and Prof. P. A. Abdu (Veterinary Medicine) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, for reading and editing this manuscript. Also, I would like to acknowledge Prof. B. O. Emikpe of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, for his contributions.
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Conflict of interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
This article does not include studies with animal or human subjects performed by the author.
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