Pathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of wound healing potential of Nigerian bee propolis in albino rats
- 27 Downloads
This study evaluated the efficacy of the Nigerian bee propolis as a wound healing agent, on full thickness skin wounds of healthy adult male (150.0 ± 0.5 g) albino rats randomly divided into three treated groups (propolis extract (PE), propylene glycol (PG), silver sulfadiazine) and an untreated group. Each rat had three circular full thickness skin wounds created on the cranial, middle, and caudal surface of the rat’s dorsum. The wounds in each group were topically treated with bee propolis extract (PE, 0.1 ml), propylene glycol (PG, 0.1 ml) and silver sulfadiazine (SS, 0.1 ml) twice daily for 21 days, except the untreated group (UT). The wounds were evaluated for gross (exudation, edema, hyperemia, wound contraction), histologic (granulation, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, epithelialization), and expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) using standard techniques. Data was descriptively summarized as percentages, mean and analyzed using Chi-square and analysis of variance at α = 0.05. Wound edge edema (WEE), hyperemia, and exudation were prominent in all the groups between days 0–2. WEE was significantly less on day 3 in the PE (14%) and SS (14%) groups, compared with the PG (35%) and UT (66%) groups. Wounds treated with PG and UT were significantly more hyperemic than those with PE and SS. Wound contraction was significantly less on day 2 in the UT wounds when compared to the treated wounds (PE = 12.63%, SS = 2.22%, PG = 4.94%, and UT = − 2.82%). The wound contraction was remarkable between days 4–8 in the PE- and SS-treated wounds (PE > SS > PG > UT). The microscopic changes at days 4, 8, 12, 16, and 21 showed significant evidence of epithelial proliferation, improved angiogenesis, granulation, and fibrous connective tissue in the PE- and SS-treated rats compared with the negative controls. The inflammatory response showed that the PE group had the highest amount of macrophages and leucocytes on day 4 with the trend being PE > SS > PG > UT. Neutrophils regressed in the treated wounds on day 8 but were consistently high in the untreated group from days 4–16. The immunohistochemical evaluation showed that the intensity of EGF was consistently high in the SS- and PE-treated wounds. Nigerian bee propolis extract accelerated wound healing similar to that of silver sulfadiazine based on wound healing indices and is therefore recommended for the management of wounds especially in low-income communities where propolis is available and affordable.
KeywordsPropolis extract Wound contraction Management Stages
The authors sincerely appreciate efforts of Mr. IC Mpama and Mr. AO Nwagbara during technical preparation of tissue samples.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
- De Castro SL (2001) Propolis: biological and pharmacological activities. Therapeutic uses of this bee product. Annu Rev Biomed 3:49–83Google Scholar
- Couto A (2001) How to process raw propolis into propolis extracts by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Under ‘Value added products of the beehive’ 2001. www.fao.org/teca.fao.org/pt-br/read/8580. Accessed 02 March 2016
- De Moura SA, Negri G, Salatino A, Lima LD, Dourado LP, Mendes J (2011) Aqueous extract of brazilian green propolis: primary components, evaluation of inflammation and wound healing by using subcutaneous implanted sponges. Evid Based Compl Alternative Med. Article ID 748283, 8 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Devasagayam T, Tilak J, Boloor K, Sane K, Ghaskadbi S, Lele R (2004) Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: current status and future prospects. J Assoc Physicians India 52:794–804Google Scholar
- Duansak D, Somboonwong J, Patumraj S (2003) Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in burn wounded rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 29:239–246Google Scholar
- Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan P (2000) Using honey as a dressing for infected skin lesions. Nurs Times 96(14):7–9Google Scholar
- Ejikeme CM, Ezeonu CS, Eboatu AN (2014) Determination of physical and phytochemical constituents of some tropical timbers indigenous to Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Eur Sci J 10(18):247–270Google Scholar
- Eyarefe OD, Amid SA (2010) Small bowel wall response to enterotomy closure with polypropylene and polyglactin 910 using simple interrupted suture pattern in rats. Int J Anim Vet Adv 2(3):72–75Google Scholar
- Eyarefe OD, Fabiyi BO (2016) Wound healing potentials of aqueous pineapple (Ananas comosus) Extract – a Preliminary Report. Glob J Pharm 10(1):23–30Google Scholar
- Eyarefe OD, Alonge TO, Fayemi EO (2011) The incidence of intestinal obstructive diseases in selected veterinary clinics and hospitals in South Western Nigeria. Nig Vet J 32(1):36–39Google Scholar
- Eyarefe OD, Ologunagba FM, Emikpe BO (2014) Wound healing potentials of natural honey in diabetic and non diabetic wistar rats. Afr J Biomed Res 17:15–21Google Scholar
- Eyarefe OD, Idowu A, Afolabi JM (2015) Healing potentials of oral Moringa oleifera leaves extract and tetracycline on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds of Wistar rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 30:73–78Google Scholar
- Fearnely J (2001) Bee propolis. Souvenir press Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Fossum TW, Cheryl SH, Johnson AL, Schulz KS, Seim HB, Willard MD (2007) Surgical infection and antibiotic selection. In: Fossum TW, editor. In: Textbook of small animal surgery. Elsevier Science, Morsby Inc, St Louis Missouri, pp 79–89Google Scholar
- Jorgensen KD, Svendsen O, Greenough RJ Kallesen T, Goburdhun R, Skydsgaard K, Finch J, Dinesen B, Nilsson P (1988) Biosynthetic human growth hormone subchronic toxicity in rats and monkeys. Pharmacol Toxicol 62:329–333Google Scholar
- Khan K, Karodi R, Sisoiquis A, Thube S (2011) Development of anti-acne gel formulation of Anthraquinone rich fraction from Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae). Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 4(4):1–8Google Scholar
- Martinotti S, Ranzato E (2015) Propolis: a new frontier for wound healing? BMC Burns Trauma 3(9):7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41038-015-0010-z
- Molan PC (2011) The evidence and the rationale for the use of honey as a wound dressing. Wound Pract Res 19(4):204–220Google Scholar
- Nguyen DH, Zhou T, Shu J, Mao JH (2013) Quantifying chromogen intensity in immunohistochemistry via reciprocal intensity. Cancer InCytes M 2(1):1–6Google Scholar
- Oguwike FN, Nwozor CM, Onwurah CN, Orjiewulu N, Olisah MC (2013) Comparative study on wound healing using potash-table salt mixture and honey on albino rats. Afrimedic J 4:29–32Google Scholar
- Patrick ES (2016) Skin wound healing. Plastic surgery medscape; www.emedicine.medscape.com, Retrieved 21 August 2017
- Qiao Z, Chen R (1991) Isolation and identification of antibiotic constituents of Propolis from Henan. Zhongguo Zhong 16(8):481–482Google Scholar
- Rosique RG, Rosique MJ, Farina JA (2015) Curbing inflammation in skin wound healing: a review. Int J Inflamm 25(1):73–78Google Scholar
- Simon PE, Outran HA, Romo III T, Pafford W, Pearson JM, Yalamanchili H, Zoumalan RA (2014) Skin wound healing. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/884594-overview. Accessed 17 Dec 2016.
- Walker M (2009) Honeybees sterilize their hives, reporting life on earth. Earth news, BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/earth/hi/earth_news/newsid_8152000/8152574.stm. Accessed 22 June 2016