Comparative Clinical Pathology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 943–947 | Cite as

Histopathological study of gastric infection with Spirocerca lupi in Pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul)

  • Seyed Mohammad HosseiniEmail author
  • Hooman Ronaghi
  • Amir Hossein Moshrefi
  • Bahram Ali Zaheri
  • Mohammad Ali Adibi
  • Kooshan Tavassoli
Original Article


Spirocerca lupi (family: Spirocercidae; order: Spirurida) are parasitic nematodes found in the esophagus of cats and dogs, as well as in other carnivore animals throughout the tropical, subtropical, and temperate countries of Asia and the Americas. These animals become infested by eating an intermediate host or a transport host. In adult felines, this parasite often resides in the mucosa of the esophagus, where it forms granulomatous nodules. In this work, a wild immature female Pallas’s cat (Otocolobus manul) that was younger than 1 year old was killed by a herding dog (heeler) in Mashhad, Iran. After necropsy, parasite samples were gathered from the stomach and after clarification by lactophenol, the nematodes were recognized as Spirocerca lupi. Microscopic diagnoses in the stomach include granulomatous nodules, mucosal gland destruction, necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration. This report characterizes the first documented case of spirocercosis in a Pallas’s cat in the world.


Spirocerca lupi Histopathology Spirocercosis Gastrointestinal tract Feline 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Babol BranchIslamic Azad UniversityBabolIran
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Science, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Babol BranchIslamic Azad UniversityBabolIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Protection SemnanSemnanIran

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