Comparative hypolipidaemic effects of crude seed powder, aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Buchholzia coriacea in carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Comparative hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous seed extracts, methanolic seed extracts and crude seed powder of Buchholzia coriacea in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride were evaluated for 56 days. A total of male albino rats (150–200 g) comprising of 12 normal and 132 CCl4-induced toxic rats were divided into 4 major groups: control groups (normal, positive and negative controls) and 3 treatment groups (B. coriacea aqueous extract (BCAE) group, B. coriacea methanolic extract (BCME) group and B. coriacea crude powder (BCCP) group) of 36 albino rats. The major group was split into three sub-groups consisting of three replicates of four rats each. The normal, negative and positive control groups were given 1 ml/kg distilled water, 150 mg/kg of CCl4 and 200 mg/kg of silymarin respectively, while each treatment group was administered 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively. Serum samples were collected from selected rats in each replicate of both treatment and control groups after 7 days of intoxication and at 2 weeks interval for various lipid profile parameters using standard methods. A time-independent significant decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in total cholesterol; LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL-cholesterol were observed in hepatotoxic rats treated with the BCCP, BCAE and BCME in comparison with the control groups. Conclusively, post treatment with aqueous seed extracts, methanolic seed extracts and crude seed powder of B. coriacea significantly attenuated hyperlipidaemic activities. Therefore, it can be suggested that B. coriacea extracts could have a protective effects against cardiovascular diseases.
KeywordsBuchholzia coriacea Methanolic extracts Aqueous extracts Crude seed powder Lipid profile Albino rats
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Handling of experimental animals used in this research was in accordance with that recommended by the Committee and the International Guidelines for Handling of Laboratory Animals (Derrell 1996).
Informed consent was obtained from each participants included in the study.
- Ahmad M, Saeed MM, Alam H, Ashgar Z (1992) Biological studies of indigenous medicinal plants ii: effort of aplotaxix lappa dcne on various parameters of liver metabolism in rabbits. J Islam Acad Sc 5:61–66Google Scholar
- Brown SB, Goldstein JL (1992) Drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias. In: Galman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P (eds) Goodman and Gilman’s pharmacological basis of therapeutics, vol 1, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill Incorporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Derrell C (1996) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Duru M, Amadi B, Ugbogu A, Eze (2014) Effect of “udu”, an antimalarial herbal preparation on visceral organ weight and blood lipid profiles in wistar rats. J Physics: conference series 8:1–7Google Scholar
- Edem DO (2002) Palm oil: Biochemical, physiological, nutritional, haematological and toxicological aspects: a review Plant Food Human Nutr 57:319–341Google Scholar
- Ezeja MI, Ezeigbo II, Madubuike KG (2011) Analgesic activity of the methanolic seed extract of Buchholzia coriacea. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2:187–193Google Scholar
- Ezekwesili CN, Obidoa O, Nwodo OFC (2008) Effects of ethanol extract of Acalypha torta leaves on the ipid profile and serum electrolytes of rabbit. Nig J Biochem Mole Biol 23(1):15–19Google Scholar
- Fred-Jaiyesimi AA, Egbebunmi O, Anthony O (2011) Larvicidal effect of he pet ether, chloroform fractions and methanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea engle seed. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2(7):1736–1739Google Scholar
- Friedwald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18(6):499–502Google Scholar
- Grew RH (2006) Lipid metabolism II: pathways of metabolism of special lipids. In: Delvlin TM (ed) Test book of biochemistry with clinical correlations, 6th edn. Wiley Liss, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- Hoff J (2000) Methods of blood collection in the mouse. Lab Anim 29(10):50–51Google Scholar
- Ibrahim TA, Fagbohun ED (2014) Phytochemical and nutritive qualities of dried seeds of Buchholzia coriacea: research and reviews. J Food Dairy Technol 2(2):1–7Google Scholar
- Ibrahim TA, Fagbonun ED (2013) Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic and methanolic extract of dried seeds of Buchholzia coriacea. Greener J Agric Sci 3(6):458–463Google Scholar
- Imafidon KE (2010) Tissue lipid profile of rats administered aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensi. Linn. J Basic Appl Sci 6(1):1–3Google Scholar
- Manikandaselvi S, Ezhilarasi S, Vaithehi R (2012) Modulation of lysosomal enzymes activity by Carica papaya Linn. and Solanum torvum Linn. in carbon tetrachloride vapour induced liver damage in rats. J Chem Pharm Res 4(2):1235–1238Google Scholar
- Mbata TI, Duru CM, Onwumelu HA (2009) Antibacterial activity of crude seed extract of Buchholzia coriacea E. on some pathogenic bacterials. J Dev Biol Tissue Eng 1(1):1–5Google Scholar
- National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel (2001) Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (ATP 111). NIH Publication. Bethesda: National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteGoogle Scholar
- Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Nwachukwu IO (2014) Comparative evaluation of phytoconstituents, antibacterial activities and proximate contents of fresh, oven dried uncooked and cooked samples of Buchholzia coriacea seed and their effects on hepatocellular integrity. Int J Pharm Sci Invention 3(6):41–49Google Scholar
- Okere OS, Iliemene UD, Tese T, Mubarak L, Olowoniyi OD (2014) Proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and antitrypanocidal potentials of Buchholzia coriacea in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. J Pharm Biol Sci 9(4):69–77Google Scholar
- Okoli BJ, Okere OS, Adeyemo SO (2010) The antiplasmodic activity of Buchholzia coriacea. J Med Appl Biosci 2:21–29Google Scholar
- Olusenyi EO, Onyeoziri NF (2009) Preliminary studies on the antimicrobial properties of Buchholzia coriacea (wonderful kola). Afr J Biotechnol 8(3):472–474Google Scholar
- Sharma V (2011) Flowers of woodfordia fruticosa exhibit in vitro cytotoxic effect on HEP-2 and SK-N-MC cancer cells. Biotechnol Bioinformatics Bioeng 1(2):229–233Google Scholar
- Ugwu OPC, Nwodo OFC, Joshua PE, Odo CE, Ossai EC (2013) Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on lipid profile of mice. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 4(1):1324–1332Google Scholar
- Walker S, McMahon D (2008) Biochemistry demystified a self-teaching guide. McGraw Hill, USAGoogle Scholar