Advertisement

A 3D printed centrifugal microfluidic platform for automated colorimetric urinalysis

  • Jiwen Xiang
  • Yong Zhang
  • Ziliang Cai
  • Wanjun WangEmail author
  • Caifeng WangEmail author
Technical Paper
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

Colorimetric urinalysis is a commonly performed test for rapid and low-cost diagnosis. Conventional colorimetric urinalysis is manually conducted using dipsticks and suffers from difficulties in control of sample distribution and color interpretation. This paper reports a microfluidic platform for conducting automated colorimetric urinalysis. Centrifugal microfluidic technology was used for regulating the distribution of urine sample in designed volume and time sequence. The prototype of the microfluidic chip was fabricated using 3D printing technology. To test the feasibility of the prototype system, commercial urinalysis strips were integrated with the microfluidic system for detecting glucose, specific gravity, PH, and protein from simulated urine sample. The color change of the strips was recorded using a smartphone and analyzed to quantify the interested parameters. The H (hue), S (saturation) and V (value) coordinates of the HSV color space were extracted and related to the change of the four parameters. The intensity change of V channel showed good representation of the change of glucose concentration and specific gravity. The intensity change of S channel decreased as the increase of PH and protein concentration. The proposed Lab-on-CD platform has potential for automating colorimetric urinalysis to reduce the user errors, thus to made the testing results conducted by non-professionals more reliable.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research work was funded by the LIFT2 Grant from LSU Research and Technology Foundation (Grant Number LIFT-14B-3).

References

  1. Dungchai W, Chailapakul O, Henry CS (2010) Use of multiple colorimetric indicators for paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal Chim Acta 674:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Evans E, Moreira Gabriel EF, Tomazelli Coltro WK, Garcia CD (2014) Rational selection of substrates to improve color intensity and uniformity on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Analyst 139:2127–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lopez-Ruiz N, Curto VF, Erenas MM, Benito-Lopez F, Diamond D, Palma AJ, Capitan-Vallvey LF (2014) Smartphone-based simultaneous pH and nitrite colorimetric determination for paper microfluidic devices. Anal Chem 86:9554–9562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Carrilho E, Iii SWT, Sindi H, Whitesides GM (2008) Simple telemedicine for developing regions : camera phones and paper-based microfluidic devices for real-time. Off-Site Diagn 80:3699–3707Google Scholar
  5. Morbioli GG, Mazzu-Nascimento T, Stockton AM, Carrilho E (2017) Technical aspects and challenges of colorimetric detection with microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs)—a review. Anal Chim Acta 970:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mulryan C, Lecturer S (2011) Urine testing through the use of dipstick analysis. Br J Healthcare Assist 5:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sechi D, Greer B, Johnson J, Hashemi N (2013) Three-dimensional paper-based micro fluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine. Anal Chem 85:10733–10737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Shen L, Hagen JA, Papautsky I (2012) Point-of-care colorimetric detection with a smartphone. Lab Chip 12:4240–4243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Simerville JA, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ (2005) Urinalysis: a comprehensive review. Am Fam Phys 71:1153–1162Google Scholar
  10. Smith GT, Dwork N, Khan SA, Millet M, Magar K, Javanmard M, Ellerbee Bowden AK (2016) Robust dipstick urinalysis using a low-cost, micro-volume slipping manifold and mobile phone platform. Lab Chip 58:951–954Google Scholar
  11. Strasinger SK, Di Lorenzo MS (2014) Urinalysis and body fluids. FA Davis, DuxburyGoogle Scholar
  12. Whiting P, Westwood M, Watt I, Cooper J, Kleijnen J (2005) Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr 5:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. William JM, Stephan KB (1995) Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Churchill Livingston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Wu X (2010) Urinalysis: a review of methods and procedures. Crit Care Nurs Clin 22:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Xiang J, Cai Z, Zhang Y, Wang W (2018) Mechanically programmed valving technology and the active flow switching application in centrifugal microfluidics. Sensors Actuators B Chem 259:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Yetisen AK, Martinez-Hurtado JL, Garcia-Melendrez A, Da Cruz Vasconcellos F, Lowe CR (2014) A smartphone algorithm with inter-phone repeatability for the analysis of colorimetric tests. Sensors Actuators B Chem 196:156–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emergency DepartmentThe First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong UniversityShaanxiChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations