# Realization of high-efficiency and high-output characteristics of magnetic power generators using single-phase angle transformation and three-phase six-wire winding

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## Abstract

Taiwan’s electricity consumption during summer increases significantly owing to the abnormal climatic changes caused by the greenhouse effect. An expedient strategy to develop a high-efficiency magnetic power generator can address the existing problem of power shortage in Taiwan. The magnetic power generator uses the force between the polarity of the magnet and the induced magnetic field of the coil to generate suction and thrust forces, which are generated when a magnet enters and leaves the coil, respectively, and can reduce the motor power consumption to achieve an energy saving effect. From the viewpoint of single-phase magnetic power generators, an angle transformation arrangement is used to achieve a positive power output to maximize the power efficiency, and three-phase power generation is used to maximize the output, where 8 magnets and 12 six-wire wound coils are used in conjunction with a delta or Y connection to achieve three-phase output. Each phase is 120° out of phase and each phase has 4 coils that generate power per revolution simultaneously. The high output characteristic enables the use of the three-phase magnetic power generators in several industrial applications. Herein, for a single-phase power generator, 8 magnets and 10 wires were used in an angle transformation arrangement, which achieved an output efficiency of up to 129.7%, whereas the three-phase power generator with 8 magnets and 12 six-wire wound coils with a diameter of 0.4 mm were used in conjunction with a delta or Y connection and achieved, which achieved an output efficiency of up to 82%, indicating that both these generators can be used for emergency power generation in homes, factories, or hospitals.

## 1 Introduction

### 1.1 The trend of single-phase and three-phase magnetic assisted power generator

Currently, the traditional generators are driven by a large motor due to the large load resistance, which causes a lot of energy to be wasted. A magnetic power generator improves power generation efficiency using magnetic energy to reduce load resistance, which allows the use of a small motor. For the single-phase generator, the coils enabled a positive efficiency output through an angle transformation arrangement, whereas for the three-phase generator, the 6 wire winding method was employed to generate a large amount of energy, which could mitigate the problem of power shortage in Taiwan.

### 1.2 The principle of magnetic generator

#### 1.2.1 Fleming’s right hand rule

#### 1.2.2 Explanation of the principle of generating magnetic force by coils arranged in a lateral direction using clockwise wire winding method

#### 1.2.3 Explanation of the principle of generating magnetic force by coils arranged in a longitudinal direction using clockwise wire winding method

## 2 Experimental

### 2.1 High efficiency of single-phase magnetic assisted generator

#### 2.1.1 Single-phase generator with coils arranged in a normal angle (Cheng et al. 2011; Ishak 2004)

##### 2.1.1.1 Calculation of weight, length, and the number of turns of power coil (Cheng and Evans 1994)

^{3}. The length of the wire corresponding to 1000 g could be solved by substituting 1000 g into the following equation,

Currently each coil weighs 250 g. Thus the length was calculated as 221 M (884 M ÷ 4).

The number of turns corresponding to the length of 221 m was calculated (the middle value for the inner and outer diameter was taken)

The circumference of each coil = 3.14 × 0.03 M = 0.0942 M

The number of turns was calculated as 2346 (221 M ÷ 0.0942 M = 2346)

##### 2.1.1.2 Maximum power generation estimate calculation (Saha et al. 2006)

1 T = 10^{4} gauss; currently N48 magnets with a magnetic flux of 0.04 T were used; a coil had a contact area of 1.5 cm^{2} = 0.015cm^{2}M^{2}; and the number of coil turns (N) = 2346 (based on prior calculation).

_{0}

Power generated by 8 coils = 36 V × 8 = 288 V

##### 2.1.1.3 Test 1: Single-phase generator with coils arranged in a normal angle

Test1 mainly tests the efficiency of the single-phase normal angle arrangement magnetic assisted positive output, and compares the difference between the actual power generation and the theoretical power generator.

Mainly test the efficiency of the single-phase normal angle arrangement magnetic assisted positive output, and compare the difference between the actual power generation and the theoretical power generator

High-power load | 13 W LED |
---|---|

No-load 2047 rpm input | 8.7VAC × 0.81A × √3 × 0.8 = 9.76 W |

No-load output | 250VAC |

Load input | 8.6VAC × 1.77A × √3 × 0.8 = 21 W |

Load 1975 rpm output | 217VAC × 0.07A = 15.19 W |

elf | 15.19 W ÷ 21 W = 72% |

Power consumption | 21 W - 9.76 W = 11.24 W |

Net power | 15.19 W - 11.24 W = 3.95 W |

Net output | 3.95 W - 9.76 W = − 5.81 W |

#### 2.1.2 Single-phase generator with coils in an angle transformation arrangement

Test 2: Single-phase generator with coils in an angle transformation

Results of efficiency and positive output of magnetic power generator with coils in an angle transformation arrangement, and comparison of power generation of generator with coils in an angle transformation arrangement and that of the generator with coils in a normal arrangement

High-power load | 13 W LED |
---|---|

No-load 2057 prpm input | 8.7VAC × 0.66A × \(\sqrt 3\) × 0.8=8 W |

No-load output | 185VAC |

Load input | 8.6VAC × 1.6A × \(\sqrt 3\) × 0.8 = 19 W |

Load 1985 rpm output | 229VAC × 0.091A = 21 W |

elf | 21 W ÷ 19 W = 110% |

Power consumption | 19 W - 8 W = 11 W |

Net power | 21 W - 11 W=10 W |

Net output | 10 W - 8 W = + 2 W |

#### 2.1.3 Single-phase generator with coils in an angle transformation arrangement

Test 3: Reverse-phase voltage coils incorporated into a single-phase generator with magnets in an angle transformation arrangement

Results of positive output efficiency of the single-phase magnetic power generator with reverse-phase coils and coils in an angle transformation arrangement, and comparison of power generation of the reverse-phase voltage-based generator with coils with and without an angle transformation arrangement (0.26 KΩ)

High-power load | 20 W LED |
---|---|

No-load 1916 rpm input | 8.1VAC × 0.74A × \(\sqrt 3\) × 0.8 = 8.3 W |

No-load output | 190VAC |

Load input | 8.5VAC × 2.29A × \(\sqrt 3\) × 0.8 = 26.9 W |

Load 1923 rpm output | 252VAC × 0.138A=34.9 W |

elf | 34.9 W ÷ 26.9 W = 129.7% |

Power consumption | 26.9 W - 8.3 W = 18.6 W |

Net power | 34.9 W - 18.6 W = 16.3 W |

Net output | 16.3 W - 8.3 W = + 8 W |

### 2.2 Three-phase generator with high output power generation

#### 2.2.1 Three-phase power generator in delta connection

Results of high-efficiency output three-phase delta connection of magnetic power generator

Low power load | Tungsten light bulb | ||
---|---|---|---|

Phase type | RS-phase | ST-phase | RT-phase |

Load watt-age | 40 W | 40 W | 40 W |

Load speed | 1571 rpm | ||

No-load voltage | 183VAC | 182VAC | 178VAC |

Power output | 70.4VAC × 0.26A = 18.3 W | 71.0VAC × 0.24A = 17.04 W | 64.7VAC × 0.26 = 16.8 W |

Total | 18.3 W+17.04 W + 16.8 W = 52.14 W | ||

Power input power | 8.34VAC × 7.46A × √3 × 0.8 = 86.2 W | ||

elf | 52.14 W÷86.2 W = 60% |

#### 2.2.2 Test 5: Three-phase generator in Y connection

Test 5: The generator with 8 magnets and 12 coils in three-phase Y connection is tested, where the coils are all arranged in a longitudinal direction.

Results of high-efficiency output three-phase Y connection of magnetic power generator

Low power load | Tungsten light bulb | ||
---|---|---|---|

Phase type | RS-phase | ST-phase | RT-phase |

Load watt-age | 40 W | 40 W | 40 W |

Load speed | 1577 rpm | ||

No-load voltage | 183VAC | 179VAC | 181VAC |

Power output | 69VAC × 0.26A = 17.94 W | 71VAC × 0.24A = 17.04 W | 65VAC × 0.25A = 16.25 W |

Total | 17.94 W + 17.04 W + 16.25 W = 51.23 W | ||

Power input power | 8.37VAC × 7.43A × √3 × 0.8 = 86.1 W | ||

elf | 51.23 W÷86.1 W = 59.5% |

#### 2.2.3 Difference in benefit between single-wire wound and six-wire wound coils in three-phase magnetic power generators

#### 2.2.4 Test 6: Three-phase generator in delta connection

Test 6: A generator with single-wire wound coils in three-phase delta connection is tested for rectification efficiency.

Results of high-efficiency output of three-phase single-wire wound magnetic power generators, and comparison of difference between generators with and without three-phase rectification

Low power load | Tungsten light bulb |
---|---|

Load wattage | 60 W |

Load speed | 1600 rpm |

No-load voltage | 248VDC |

Power output | 112VDC × 0.5A = 56 W |

Power input power | 8.2VAC × 7.13A × √3 × 0.8 = 81 W |

elf | 56 W÷81 W = 69% |

#### 2.2.5 Test 7: Three-phase generator in delta connection

Test 7: Six-wire wound coils in three-phase delta connection are tested for rectification efficiency.

Results of high-efficiency output of three-phase six-wire wound magnetic power generator, and comparison of power generation of single-wire wound and six-wire wound generators

Low power load | Tungsten light bulb |
---|---|

Load wattage | 60 W |

Load speed | 1639 rpm |

No-load voltage | 219VDC |

Power output | 108VDC × 0.57A = 61.56 W |

Power input power | 8.2VAC × 6.6A × √3 × 0.8 = 74.9 W |

elf | 61.56 W ÷ 74.9 W = 82% |

## 3 Results and discussion

### 3.1 What is difference between a magnetic power generator and a conventional generator? How to prove that the magnetic power generator has higher efficiency?

- 1.
The traditional generator is composed of two sets of coils to form an AC loop, which causes two resistances to enter and pull away during the power generation process; but the magnetic power generator has one coil fprming an AC loop, so the entry resistance and the exit tension can be reduced.

- 2.
The traditional generator has a maximum efficiency of 70%, but the magnetic power generator has 82% of the low power load test in three-phase power generation test7, so the magnetic power generator is more efficient.

### 3.2 Difference in benefit between single-phase magnetic power generators in and not in an angle transformation

### 3.3 How the single-phase power generation does uses the best combination of angle transformations with an efficiency of 129.7%. How does it measure? Is it a violation of energy conservation?

- 1.
The eddy current generated by the generator is interrupted by the angle change of the coil in each turn to reduce the drag, so the single-phase power generation can reach 129.7%efficiency.

- 2.
The voltage value is measured in parallel with the voltmeter, and the current value is measured in series with the ammeter, and test load using high power Led lights.

- 3.
The single-phase angle transformations magnetic power generator uses the special arrangement of coil to make the force of the magnet to generate the thrust and to achieve the energy-saving effect. Therefore, the highest efficiency of 129.7% includes the force of the magnet itself and the input of the motor does not violate the energy conservation.

### 3.4 Difference the maximum efficiency between the single-phase magnetic power generator with reverse-phase coils and coils in an angle transformation arrangement with domestic and foreign generator manufacturers

Maximum efficiency performance analysis

Object comparison | This paper experiment | Domestic manufacturers http://www.jihdah.com/showinvestors.asp?investorsId=I013040001211212 | Foreign manufacturers https://www.cadmen.com/page/iFrame/Preview.aspx?tp=News&im=51&ns=148 |
---|---|---|---|

Efficiency | Single-phase magnetic power generator efficiency 129.7% | JIH-DAH,LTD maximum efficiency 98% | INDAR Electric maximum efficiency 97.7% |

Test motor type | 300 W DC brushless motor and magnetic power generator | SEMA-T468 motor 3600 RPM max power 160 HP | Permanent magnet generators (PMGs) |

Control method | Brushless Speed regulation | Segmented electromagnetic array construction | Low frequency An soft Maxwell |

### 3.5 Whether the three-phase magnetic power generator is suitable for the angle transformation? How to improve the driving force of the driving again in the future if the single-phase angle transformations magnetic power generator is applied to an electric vehicle?

- 1.
Since each phase in three phases is a single phase and the independent of each phase, so the angle conversion method is applied to improve the efficiency in three-phase magnetic power generator.

- 2.
Single-phase angle transformations magnetic power generator can be used with the flywheel and with small motor as the power of the electric vehicle, the principle is that a lithium battery is used to provide DC small motor power, the DC small motor drives the flywheel, the flywheel drives the magnetic assisted generator and electric vehicle provides the power, because the high-frequency synchronous power generation generated by the magnetic power generator can be supplied to the power of a power coil added inside the magnetic power generator. The power generation and power functions of the magnetic power generator can reduce the load driven by the DC small motor, and the power generation is rectified and recharged to another battery, which improves the higher endurance of the vehicle.

### 3.6 Difference in benefit between three-phase single-wire wound and three-phase six-wire wound magnetic power generators

### 3.7 What is the function of the three-phase magnetic assisted generator in the six-line tangling? How is it different form using three or more lines?

- 1.
The function of the three-phase magnetic power generator reduces the cutting resistance by reducing the number of turns per single line by six-wire winding method and to reduce the input when using low power loads for example using a tungsten light bulb as a load.

- 2.
It has been tested that the odd number six-wire tangling method is more efficient than the even-numbered line or the three-line or twelve-line number, so odd number six-wire tangling efficiency is highest under low power load.

### 3.8 How to improve single-phase and three-phase magnetic power generators in the future

#### 3.8.1 Improvement of single-phase magnetic power generators

#### 3.8.2 Improvement of three-phase magnetic power generator

Outlook: Currently the efficiency of a single-phase magnetic power generator with coils in an angle transformation arrangement has been 129.7%. With both the magnet diameter and length increased to 30 mm, respectively, the efficiency could be increased to 140%. Currently, a three-phase six-wire wound power generator could output power of 61.56 W, where the diameter of the wire is 0.4 mm. In future, the power could be increased to over 100 W using wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm in conjunction with using the said 3 methods (Fig. 21).

## 4 Conclusion

### 4.1 Using thin wire in power generation coils is likely to cause high impedance and generate low current

Therefore, it needs to determine the load voltage before the maximum power generation current is determined.

### 4.2 A large magnetic force increases the power generation

The magnetic field strength determines wire diameter, wire diameter determines the impedance value, and the impedance value determines the power generation voltage. Large impedance requires a high power generation voltage but causes a low power generation current, which causes a large motor load.

### 4.3 The connection configurations of the three-phase magnetic power generator should be selected according to the load voltage

If the three-phase Y connection configuration is selected, line voltage is higher than phase voltage and line current is equal to phase current. Due to a high working voltage, thick line is suitably used. If the three-phase delta connection configuration is used, line voltage is equal to phase voltage and line current is larger than phase current. Thus thin-wire wound coils can be used to generate electricity.

### 4.4 Advantages of single-phase magnetic power generators with coils in an angle transformation arrangement

- 1.
Single-phase magnetic power generators with coils in an angle transformation arrangement achieve higher efficiency and are more suitable for general household use.

- 2.
They can be used in conjunction with power generated by electric vehicles to increase driving endurance.

- 3.
They can be used in conjunction with wind power. A force 2 wind can enable a full-load power generation, which increase the popularity of single-phase magnetic power generators with coils in an angle transformation arrangement.

### 4.5 Advantages of three-phase six-wire wound magnetic power generator

- 1.
The three-phase Y-connection configuration can simultaneously generate three-phase 220 V AC and 440 V AC current, and the three-phase delta connection configuration can generate three-phase 220 V AC current, which is suitable for general industrial use.

- 2.
The three-phase magnetic power generator adopting the 6 wire winding configuration can enable a small load input and a high power output under low power load.

- 3.
With only 4 coils generating power in each phase, the coils cause less interference with each other. Thus the three-phase magnetic power generator achieves a high power output.

### 4.6 How does the publication of this paper give inspiration to the researcher and contribute to society?

- 1.
For those who want study the high efficiency generator, they can understand the principle and data analysis through the experimental process, and can quickly go to a higher level development.

- 2.
Currently the worldwide faces power shortages, and hopes that this study can reduce the problem of power shortage and create social happiness with low-cost electricity.

## Notes

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