Physics based non-linear large-signal analysis of multiple-graphene layer exotic pin (p++nnn++) devices and ultra-fast SPST/SPDT/SPMT switches on Si/3C-SiC (100) substrates for application in THz-communication

  • Abhijit Kundu
  • Moumita MukherjeeEmail author
Technical Paper


Multiple-Graphene-Layer (MGL) on Si/3C-SiC (100) substrate is proposed for designing of a vertically doped p++nnn++ device/switch array for Terahertz communication systems. In addition to the superior mechanical properties in Graphene, conducive–electrical and electronic properties, especially, high carrier mobility in MGL has made this a promising material for different novel applications in THz domain. A quantum-modified classical drift–diffusion (QMCLDD) mathematical model, incorporating quantum size effects, arising due to Multiple-Graphene-Layer, is developed by the authors for analysing the THz-characteristics of exotic-pin p++nnn++ devices and switches. The validity of the model is further established by comparing the simulation results with those of the experimental observations under similar electrical/thermal/structural operating conditions. The comprehensive study reveals that the switching behaviour of the device improves considerably due to the incorporation of MGL structure in the central i-region of the device. The device has shown considerably faster reverse recovery time (~ 0.5 ns), low forward RF series resistances (0.29Ω) and low power dissipation (0.45 dB). Central i-region width, doping concentration and mesa diameter of the device are optimized by studying the punch-through effects on the electric field profiles under large signal operation. It is observed that compared to the High-Punch-Through Device (HPTD) and Non-Punch-Through Device (NPTD), Low-Punch-Through Device (LPTD) is showing better high-frequency performances under similar operating conditions. A tradeoff between device width and doping concentration is further established for ultra-fast switching operation in the THz-regime. A comparative analysis of Insertion loss (IL) and Isolation (ISO) in Single-Pole-Single-Throw (SPST), Single-Pole-Double-Throw (SPDT) and Single-Pole-Multi-Throw (SPMT) THz-switches (with series–shunt and Shunt type arrays) is reported in the paper. The study clearly reveals the suitability of LPTD variant for the development of SPST switches in terms of lowest IL (0.015 dB) and SPMT shunt switches in terms of highest ISO (88.0 dB) at around 4.0 THz. Moreover, the authors have made quasi 2D-thermal analysis of the Device-Under-Test (DUT). The results will be extremely useful for developing ultrafast solid-state switches. To the best of authors’ knowledge this is the first ever report on vertically grown MGL-exotic pin (p++nnn++) device on Si/3C-SiC (100) substrate, as a THz ultrafast switch.



Forward bias current


Applied voltage


Carrier life time


Carrier ionization rate


Design frequency


Diffusion length


Series resistance


Intrinsic Resistance


Junction resistance


Transit time current


Reverse recovery current


Power dissipation


Characteristic impedance


Ambient temperature


Thermal impedance


Specific heat


Volume of the device


Heat capacity


Thermal time constant


On time of the applied pulse


Total time duration of the applied pulse




Electric potential


Current density of hole and electron


Acceptor concentration


Mean free path


Donor concentration

GTn,p (x,t)

Carrier generation rates


Carrier ionization rates


Concentration of the charge carriers


Mobility of hole and electron


Boltzmann’s constant


Junction temperature


Electric field in the i-region


Planck’s constant


i-region width


Normalized current densit

QTp,n (x,t)

Quantum potential


Charge of electron


Volume charge density


Intrinsic concentration


Diffusion constant of hole and electron


Modulation index


Breakdown voltage



  1. Ahmad H, Ghadiry M et al (2016) A new approach to study carrier generation in graphene nanoribbons under lateral bias. Am Sci Publi 6:283–288.
  2. Ancona MG (2011) Density gradient theory: a macroscopic approach to quantum confinement and tunneling in semiconductor devices. J Comput Electron 10:65–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazin AE, Michaud JF et al (2010) High quality ohmic contacts on n-type 3C–SiC–SiC obtained by high and low process temperature. AIP Conf Proc 192:51–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogle JJ, Hubert RJ, Boles TE (2010) A 50 watt monolithic surface-mount series–shunt pin diode switch with integrated thermal sink. Proceeding of Asia-Pacific conference.
  5. Cho SY, Kim HM et al (2012) Direct formation of graphene layers on top SiC during carburization of si substrate. Curr Appl Phys 1088–1091.
  6. Deng X, Bo Zhang et al (2007) Electro-thermal analytical model and simulation of the self-heating effects in multi-finger 4H-SiC power MESFETs. Semicond Sci Technol 22:1339–1343. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dmitriev VD et al (1995) SiC a(3)n alloys and wide band gap nitrides on SiC substrates. Int Phys Conf Ser 141:497–502Google Scholar
  8. Dorgan VE, Bae MH (2010) Mobility and saturation velocity in graphene on SiO2. Appl Phys Lett 97:082112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisele H, Haddad GI (1997) Microwave semiconductor device physics. In: Sze SM (ed) Wiley, New York.
  10. Falco CD, Gatti E et al (2005) Quantum-corrected drift–diffusion models for transport in semiconductor device. J Comput Phys 204:533–561. MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Fedirko AV (2015) Graphene electron state in quantum well. Univ J Phys Appl 9:175–181.
  12. Feng ZC (2003) SiC power materials and devices. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  13. Gated E et al. (2007) An improved physics-based formulation of the microwave pin diode impedance. IEEE Microw Wirel Compon Lett 17:211–213.
  14. Grov AS (1967) Physics and technology of semiconductor device, 1st Edn. Willey, New York…/Physics+and+Technology+of+Semiconductor+Devices-p-97
  15. Henfiner AR, Lai JS et al (2001) SiC power diode provide breakthrough performance for a wide range of application. IEEE Trans 16:273–278.
  16. Kohlt M et al (1995) The influence of glucose concentration upon the transport of light in tissue-simulation phantoms. Phys Med Biol 40:1267–1287. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kundu A, Kanjilal M, Das A, Kundu J, Mukherjee M (2013a) Cubic structure Si pin diode as RF switch. International Conference IET”, pp 119–121.
  18. Kundu A, Ray Kanjilal M, Mukherjee M (2013b) Insertion loss and isolation of pin switch based on SiC family. J Electron Devices 18:1568–1570Google Scholar
  19. Kundu A, Kanjilal M, Biswas P (2015) Thermal modeling of III-V WBG-based pin switch. computational advancement in communication circuits and systems. Springer India, Chapter-45, pp-407-403.
  20. Kundu J, Kundu A, Kanjilal M, Mukherjee M (2016) A 2D-thermal model for estimation of heat-dissipation in SiC based pin switches used for RF communication. Frontiers Computer, Communication and Electrical Engineering, Taylor & Francis Group, India, Book Chapter-38,PP-183-85.…/301723363_2D-thermal_model_for_estimation_of_heat
  21. Kundu A, Kanjilal M, Mukherjee M (2018) III–V super-lattice SPST/SPMT pin switches for THz communication: theoretical reliability and experimental feasibility studies. Microsyst Technol 18:4053–5.
  22. Leenov D (1963) The silicon pin diode as a microwave rader protector at megawatt levels. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 10:53–61.
  23. Mukherjee M (2009) Computer Studies of Silicon Carbide, Gallium Nitride and Indium Phosphide based IMPATT Devices Operating in MM Wave and Terahertz region and Corresponding Studies on the Photo-Sensitivity of the Devices. P.hD Thesis, Calcutta University. Scholar
  24. Mukherjee S, Kaloni TP (2012) Electronic properties of boron- and nitrogen-doped graphene: a first principles study. J Nanopart Res 14:1059. (0.45ev Band-Gap). › cond-mat
  25. Mukherjee M, Mazumder M (2010) Prospect of a β-SiC based IMPATT oscillator for application in THz communication and growth of a β SiC p-n junction on a Ge modified Si (100) substrate of a realize THz IMPATTs. J Semicond 31(124001):1–8. Google Scholar
  26. Ozpenici B, Tolbert LM (2003) Comparision of wide-bandgap semiconductors for power electronics application. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak RidgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Pezzimenti F, Corte FG et al. (2008) Experimental characterization and numerical analysis of the 4H-SiC pin diodes static and transient behaviour. Microelectron J 39:1594–1599.
  28. Pirror L, Girdhar A et al (2012) Impact ionization and carrier multiplication in graphene. J Appl Phys 112:1–9Google Scholar
  29. Ryzhill V, Ryzhill M, Mitin M et al (2010) Terahertz and infrared photodetection using pin multiple-graphene-layer structure. J Appl Phys 107:0545121–0545127. Google Scholar
  30. Saeidmanesh M, Ghadiry MH et al (2014) Carrier scattering and impact ionization in bilayer graphene. J Comput Electron 13:180–181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schlangenotto H, Serafin J et al. (1989) Improved recovery of fast power diodes with self-adjusting P emitter efficiency. IEEE Trans Electron Device Lett 10:322–324.
  32. Shishir RS, Ferry DK (2009) Room temperature velocity saturation in intrinsic graphene. J Phys Conf Ser. Google Scholar
  33. Stupelmann V, Filaretov G (1976) Semiconductor devices. MIR Publishers Moscow.
  34. Sze SM (1997) VLSI technology. 2nd Edition, “McGraw-Hill International.…/p/…/s-m-sze-ed-vlsi-technology-2nd-edition-mcgraw-hill
  35. Sze SM (2008) Semiconductor devices: physics and technology, 2nd edn. Willey, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Takahashi K, Okamura S, Wang X et al. (2011) A capacitance compensated high isolation and low insertion loss series pin diode SPDT switch. Proceeding of the 41st European Microwave Communication pp 583–586. IEEE
  37. Wang H, Maiyalagan T et al (2012) Review on recent progress in nitrogen-doped graphene: synthesis, characterization, and its potential applications. Am Chem Soc 2:781–794. Google Scholar
  38. Wang H, Zou H, Li H (2015) Electro-thermal coupled modeling of pin diode limiter used in high-power microwave effects simulation. J Electromagn Wave Appl 29:615–625. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Williams JOD (2018) From terahertz to X-ray: developing new graphene-based photodetector technologies. PhD Thesis University of Leicester.
  40. Zebhbroeck BV (2011) Principal of semiconductor devices. Colorado Press, Colorado.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringGovt. Engg. CollegeChaibasaIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsAdamas UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations