Advertisement

Experimental investigation on dynamic characteristics of hexagonal CMUT

  • AditiEmail author
  • R. Mukhiya
  • K. Prabakar
  • M. Raghuramaiah
  • V. K. Khanna
  • R. Gopal
Technical Paper
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

In the present work, nonlinear dynamic characteristics of hexagonal capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) devices are reported for the first time. The 10 × 10 arrays showed a central frequency of 1.713 MHz with a bandwidth of 65 kHz, indicating synchronous vibration of the cells. Single cells and array are analyzed for their resonant frequency, quality factor, pull-in and mode of operation. The experimental analysis shows the resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Spring hardening and then transition to spring softening of the structure with DC bias is observed on membranes with varying thicknesses. The paper demonstrates experimentally the traits of a single hexagonal cell with frequency shift under squeeze film damping phenomenon. The resonance frequency of these devices was found to vary from 1.58 to 1.83 MHz and this is attributed to the variation in thickness of the membrane across the wafer which is validated by FEM simulation results.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support from DAE-IGCAR, Kalpakkam under grant-in-aid project is gratefully acknowledged. The authors express their sincere thanks to Director, CSIR-CEERI and Director, IGCAR for their support and guidance. They wish to thank all members of Smart Sensors Area at CSIR-CEERI; VKK is thankful to CSIR for grant under emeritus scientist scheme.

References

  1. Aditi S, Mukhiya R, Gopal R, Khanna VK (2012) FEM simulation of CMUT cell for NDT application. In: 16th international workshop on physics of semiconductor devices, October 2012, Kanpur, India, vol. 8549, p 85491HGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad B, Pratap R (2010) Elasto-electrostatic analysis of circular microplates used in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers. IEEE Sens J 10(11):1767–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahreyni B (2008) Fabrication & design of resonant microdevices. William Andrew. Inc., NorwichGoogle Scholar
  4. Bao M, Yang H (2007) Squeeze film air damping in MEMS. Sens Actuators A Phys 136(1):3–27MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellaredj M, Bourbon G, Walter V, Le Moal P, Berthillier M (2014) Anodic bonding using SOI wafer for fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers. J Micromech Microeng 24(2):025009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blech JJ (1983) On isothermal squeeze films. J Lubricationtechnol 105(4):615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulmé A, Ngo S, Minonzio JG, Legros M, Talmant M, Laugier P, Certon D (2014) A capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer probe for assessment of cortical bone. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 61(4):710–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen AI, Wong LL, Li Z, Na S, Yeow JT (2017) Practical CMUT fabrication with a nitride-to-oxide-based wafer bonding process. J Microelectromech Syst 26(4):829–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cianci E, Foglietti V, Caliano G, Pappalardo M (2002) Micromachined capacitive ultrasonic transducers fabricated using silicon on insulator wafers. Microelectr Engi 61–62:1025–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Erguri AS, Huang Y, Zhuang X, Oralkan O, Yarahoglu GG, Khuri-Yakub BT (2005) Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers: fabrication technology. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 52(12):2242–2258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galisultanov A, Le Moal P, Bourbon G, Walter V (2017) Squeeze film damping and stiffening in circular CMUT with air-filled cavity: influence of the lateral venting boundary conditions and the bias voltage. Sens Actuators A Phys 266:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang Y, Ergun AS, Haeggstrom E, Badi MH, Khuri-Yakub BT (2003) Fabricating capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with wafer-bonding technology. J Microelectromech Syst 12(2):128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang Y, Hæggstrom EO, Zhuang X, Ergun AS, Khuri-Yakub BT (2005) A solution to the charging problems in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 52(4):578–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jallouli A, Kacem N, Bourbon G, Le Moal P, Walter V, Lardies J (2016) Pull-in instability tuning in imperfect nonlinear circular microplates under electrostatic actuation. Phys Lett A 380(46):3886–3890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jia L, He C, Xue C et al (2018) The device characteristics and fabrication method of 72-element CMUT array for long-range underwater imaging applications. Microsyst Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-018-4062-4 Google Scholar
  16. Koymen H, Atalar A, Aydogdu E, Kocabas C, Oguz HK, Olcum S, Ozgurluk A, Unlugedik A (2012) An improved lumped element nonlinear circuit model for a circular CMUT cell. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2383
  17. Miao J, Wang H, Li P, Shen W, Xue C, Xiong J (2016) Glass-SOI-based hybrid-bonded capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with hermetic cavities for immersion applications. J Microelectromech Syst 25(5):976–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mukhiya R, Aditi S, Prabakar K, Raghuramaiah M, Jayapandian J, Gopal R, Khanna VK, Shekhar C (2015) Fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays with isolation trenches using anodic wafer bonding. IEEE Sens J 15(9):5177–5184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rekhi AS, Khuri-Yakub BT, Arbabian A (2017) Wireless power transfer to millimeter-sized nodes using airborne ultrasound. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 64(10):1526–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Song J, Xue C, He C, Zhang R, Mu L, Cui J, Miao J, Liu Y, Zhang W (2015) Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for underwater imaging applications. Sensors 15(9):23205–23217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stedman Q, Park KK, Khuri-Yakub BT (2017) An 8-channel CMUT chemical sensor array on a single chip. IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Washington, DC, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  22. Yamaner FY, Zhang X, Oralkan Ö (2015) A three-mask process for fabricating vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using anodic bonding. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 62(5):972–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang P, Fitzpatrick G, Harrison T, Moussa WA, Zemp RJ (2012) Double-SOI wafer-bonded CMUTs with improved electrical safety and minimal roughness of dielectric and electrode surfaces. J Microelectromech Syst 21(3):668–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang R, Xue C, He C et al (2016) Design and performance analysis of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for underwater imaging. Microsyst Technol 22:2939.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-015-2716-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang X, Yamaner FY, Oralkan Ö (2017) Fabrication of vacuum-sealed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with through-glass-via interconnects using anodic bonding. J Microelectromech Syst 26(1):226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhao L, Li J, Li Z, Zhang J, Zhao Y, Wang J, Xia Y, Li P, Zhao Y, Jiang Z (2017) Fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with low-temperature direct wafer-Bonding technology. Sens Actuators A Phys 264:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zure T, Chowdhury S (2012) Fabrication and measurements of dynamic response of an SOI based non-planar CMUT array. Microsyst Technol 18:629.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-012-1500-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)GhaziabadIndia
  2. 2.Smart Sensors Area, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research InstitutePilaniIndia
  3. 3.Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, HBNIIndira Gandhi Centre for Atomic ResearchKalpakkamIndia

Personalised recommendations