Critical heat flux limiting the effective cooling performance of two-phase cooling with an interlayer microchannel

  • Jong-Yoon Park
  • Lu Peng
  • Jin-Woo ChoiEmail author
Technical Paper


The cooling problem on integrated circuits (ICs) has emerged as the primary issue for higher performance of modern processors and three-dimensional ICs (3D ICs) in particular. Cooling systems with interlayer microchannels in 3D ICs have been widely studied as a promising cooling system for a high-performance processor. However, two-phase cooling systems for 3D ICs cooling have rarely been studied especially in interlayer microchannel structures. In this paper, we report a comparative study on cooling performance of single-phase cooling with water and two-phase cooling with R134a in an interlayer microchannel. The microfluidic and heat transfer problem was solved by using ANSYS Fluent 16.1. Contrary to the general view that two-phase cooling is better than single-phase cooling, we found that two-phase cooling with R134a is more efficient only in the heat flux of below 12 kW/m2 than single-phase cooling with water. The critical heat flux (CHF) was the main limitation of two-phase cooling to deal with a higher heat flux at a given mass flux.



This work was funded in part by National Science Foundation (Grant no. CCF-1422408). The authors also thank Mr. Chenguang Zhang for technical discussion and help in coding user defined functions. Simulation work of this research was conducted using high performance computing resources provided by the Center for Computation and Technology at Louisiana State University (


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Microstructures and DevicesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

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