Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 11, pp 4477–4492 | Cite as

A new multi-mode multi-input–multi-output (MIMO) converter in an efficient low-voltage energy harvesting system for a gas sensor

  • Ming-Hung Yu
  • Paul C.-P. Chao
Technical Paper


This paper presents a new multi-mode multi-input–multi-output (MIMO) converter with a battery for operating an energy harvesting (EH) system for gas sensors. In this EH system, the MIMO converter has a single DC–DC structure with multiple inputs and outputs. The converter is designed and tuned to harvest ambient light energy from a photovoltaic module, and it then provides regulated power at biases of 3.3 and 5 V to charge the battery and/or to drive a gas sensor. The battery serves as a load to be charged by the MIMO or as a power source when the ambient light energy is insufficient to drive the gas sensor. For regulating the DC–DC converter, maximum power point tracking is implemented for each power path from inputs and outputs. The proposed MIMO converter has the least number of switches among existing converters. Experimental results reveal that the MIMO converter exhibits a high efficiency of 89.73% for a large power throughput of 0.9 W for a gas sensor.



The authors appreciate the partial support provided by the National Applied Research Laboratories IoT Program under Grant Numbers NARL-IOT-106-004 and NARL-IOT-105-006 as well as the support provided by the Ministry of Science and Technology of R.O.C under Grant Numbers MOST 106-3114-E-009-004- and 105-2634-F-009-002. This study was also supported in part by the Novel Bioengineering and Technological Approaches to Solve Two Major Health Problems in Taiwan sponsored by the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology Academic Excellence Program under Grant Number MOST 106-2633-B-009-001.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Electrical and Control EngineeringNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Chiao Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan

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