Advertisement

Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 413–422 | Cite as

Influence of thermal wave emitted by the cellular devices on the human head

  • Alaa A. El-Bary
  • Hamdy M. YoussefEmail author
  • M. A. Omar
  • Khaled T. Ramadan
Technical Paper
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, a mathematical model of three layers system represents how the external thermal shock passing through the three layers of the head: skin, bone, and brain. In this model, we will take into account the internal heat source generated within the human head from the chemical reactions of the tissue and the lag-time to study the response time of the tissue takes due to the perturbation. The materials parameters of the head for an adult and a child have been used to studying and comparing the two cases. Laplace transforms have been used and the inversions have been calculated numerically. We studied the thermal distribute through the human head with different values of time, depth, relaxation time, the frequency of power transmission, and power density. It was shown that all that parameters have significant effects on the human head and the thermal distribution is more harmful to the child than the adult.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport for financial supporting this project under second round of internal calls 2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors has no conflict of interest with any other authors or other work.

References

  1. Behari J (2010) Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure. IJEB 48(10):959–981Google Scholar
  2. Bernardi P, Cavagnaro M, Pisa S, Piuzzi E (2000) Specific absorption rate and temperature increases in the head of a cellular-phone user. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 48:1118–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dutta PK, Jayasree PVY, Baba VSSNS (2016) SAR reduction in the modelled human head for the mobile phone using different material shields. Hum Centric Comput Inform Sci 6:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ferreri F, Curcio G, Pasqualetti P, De Gennaro L, Fini R, Rossini PM (2006) Mobile phone emissions and human brain excitability. Ann Neurol 60:188–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hossmann KA, Hermann D (2003) Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 24:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Keetley V, Wood AW, Spong J, Stough C (2006) Neuropsychological sequelae of digital mobile phone exposure in humans. Neuropsychologia 44:1843–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lam TT, Fong E (2011) Heat diffusion vs. wave propagation in solids subjected to exponentially-decaying heat source: analytical solution. Int J Therm Sci 50:2104–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lin L (2003) Cataracts and personal communication radiation. IEEE Microw Mag 4:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lindholm H et al (2011) Thermal effects of mobile phone RF fields on children: a provocation study. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 107:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu J, Zhang X, Wang C, Lu W, Ren Z (1997) Generalized time delay bioheat equation and preliminary analysis on its wave nature. Chin Sci Bull 42:289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu J, Chen X, Xu LX (1999) New thermal wave aspects on burn evaluation of skin subjected to instantaneous heating. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 46:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu K-C, Cheng P-J, Wang Y-N (2011) Analysis of non-Fourier thermal behavior for multi-layer skin model. Therm Sci 15:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lu Y, Ying J, Tan T-K, Arichandran K (1996) Electromagnetic and thermal simulations of 3-D human head model under RF radiation by using the FDTD and FD approaches. IEEE Trans Magn 32:1653–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ozen S, Helhel S, Cerezci O (2008) Heat analysis of biological tissue exposed to microwave by using thermal wave model of bio-heat transfer (TWMBT). Burns J Int Soc Burn Inj 34:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tullius TK, Bayazitoglu Y (2012) Relaxation time effect on the human head using the thermal wave model. In: ASME 2012 international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, 2012. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp 735–742Google Scholar
  16. Tullius TK, Bayazitoglu Y (2013) Analysis of relaxation times on the human head using the thermal wave model. Int J Heat Mass Transf 67:1007–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tzou DY (1995) A unified field approach for heat conduction from macro-to micro-scales. Trans Am Soc Mech Eng J Heat Transf 117:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tzou DY (2014) Macro-to microscale heat transfer: the lagging behavior. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Volkow ND et al (2011) Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. Jama 305:808–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wainwright P (2000) Thermal effects of radiation from cellular telephones. Phys Med Biol 45:2363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wessapan T, Srisawatdhisukul S, Rattanadecho P (2012) Specific absorption rate and temperature distributions in human head subjected to mobile phone radiation at different frequencies. Int J Heat Mass Transf 55:347–359CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Xie Z, Liu G, Wu S, Fang Z, Gan Y (2010) Pennes equation based blood perfusion model and its application in face recognition. In: Information and automation (ICIA), 2010 IEEE international conference on, 2010. IEEE, pp 2443–2446Google Scholar
  23. Xu F, Lu T, Seffen KA (2008) Dual-phase-lag model of skin bioheat transfer. In: BioMedical engineering and informatics, 2008. BMEI 2008. International conference on, 2008. IEEE, pp 505–511Google Scholar
  24. Xu X, Meade A, Bayazitoglu Y (2011) Numerical investigation of nanoparticle-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy toward tumor and cancer treatments. Lasers Med Sci 26:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhou J, Chen J, Zhang Y (2009a) Dual-phase lag effects on thermal damage to biological tissues caused by laser irradiation. Comput Biol Med 39:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhou J, Zhang Y, Chen J (2009b) An axisymmetric dual-phase-lag bioheat model for laser heating of living tissues. Int J Therm Sci 48:1477–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alaa A. El-Bary
    • 1
  • Hamdy M. Youssef
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. A. Omar
    • 1
  • Khaled T. Ramadan
    • 1
  1. 1.Basic and Applied Science DepartmentArab Academy for Science and TechnologyAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Mathematics Department, Faculty of EducationAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt

Personalised recommendations