Microsystem Technologies

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 5017–5026 | Cite as

Additive fabrication of a 3D electrostatic energy harvesting microdevice designed to power a leadless pacemaker

  • Sarah RisquezEmail author
  • Marion Woytasik
  • Philippe Coste
  • Nathalie Isac
  • Elie Lefeuvre
Technical Paper


This paper presents the development of a process enabling to fabricate complex three-dimensional nickel microdevices. The possibilities offered by this new process are highlighted by the fabrication of an original electrostatic MEMS energy harvester designed to power a leadless pacemaker. The fabrication principle is based on the repetition of three main steps: the micromolding of a structural material (nickel), the electrodeposition of a sacrificial material (copper) and a mechanical planarization of the layer. Several solutions to overcome the major challenges of this original fabrication process are presented, as for example the conception of a dedicated instrumentation for polishing. This new process has enabled us to fabricate a first three-dimensional prototype of the electrostatic MEMS made of 10 layers of nickel for a total thickness of 200 µm with a minimum in-plane pattern size of 10 µm.



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 604360. This work was partly supported by the French RENATECH network. Fabrication was performed at the nano-centre CTU-IEF-Minerve which is partially funded by the Conseil Général de l’Essonne. We also would like to thank P. Couderc and E. Leroy from 3D Plus for laser cutting. Finally, we would like to thank P. Filloux, S. Suffit and C. Manquest of Université Paris Diderot cleanroom for their technical support.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 2232 kb)


  1. Ansari MH, Karami MA (2016) Modeling and experimental verification of a fan-folded vibration energy harvester for leadless pacemakers. J Appl Phys 119:94506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asif S, Hansen J, Khan M et al (2015) Design and in vivo test of a battery-less and fully wireless implantable asynchronous pacing system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 63:1070–1081. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Basset P, Kaiser A, Collard D, Buchaillot L (2002) Process and realization of a three-dimensional gold electroplated antenna on a flexible epoxy film for wireless micromotion system. J Vac Sci Technol B Microelectron Nanometer Struct 20:1465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chouarbi K, Woytasik M, Lefeuvre E, Moulin J (2013) SmCo micromolding in an aqueous electrolyte. Microsyst Technol 19:887–893. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cortes M, Moulin J, Couty M et al (2013) Micromolding of NiFe and Ni thick films for 3D integration of MEMS. J Electrochem Soc 161:B3038–B3043. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deterre M, Lefeuvre E, Zhu Y et al (2013a) Micro blood pressure energy harvester for intracardiac pacemaker. J Microelectromech Syst 23:651–660. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deterre M, Risquez S, Bouthaud B et al (2013b) Multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting structure actuated by blood pressure for powering intra-cardiac implants. J Phys Conf Ser 476:12039. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalin R, Stanton MS (2005) Current clinical issues for MRI scanning of pacemaker and defibrillator patients. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 28:326–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koruth JS, Rippy MK, Khairkhahan A et al (2015) Percutaneous retrieval of implanted leadless pacemakers. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 1:563–570. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lifton VA, Lifton G, Simon S (2014) Options for additive rapid prototyping methods (3D printing) in MEMS technology. Rapid Prototyp J 20:403–412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Microfabrica Microfabrica—Materials. Accessed 1 May 2018
  12. Paradiso JA, Starner T (2005) Energy scavenging for mobile and wireless electronics. IEEE Pervasive Comput 4:18–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Park G, Rosing T, Todd MD et al (2008) Energy harvesting for structural health monitoring sensor networks. J Infrastruct Syst 14:64–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Risquez S, Woytasik M, Wei J et al (2015) Design of a 3D multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting MEMS for medical implant applications. In: IEEE symposium DTIP. pp 1–5.
  15. Risquez S, Woytasik M, Cai H et al (2017) Micromolding of Ni–P with reduced ferromagnetic properties for 3D MEMS. J Electrochem Soc 164:B3096–B3100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rufer L, Colin M, Basrour S (2013) Application driven design, fabrication and characterization of piezoelectric energy scavenger for cardiac pacemakers. In: 2013 joint IEEE international symposium on applications of ferroelectric and workshop on piezoresponse force microscopy (ISAF/PFM). pp 340–343.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Nanosciences et de NanotechnologiesCNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, C2N-OrsayOrsay CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations