Advertisement

Aridisols in the Southern Permian Basin of Lithuania: a key to understanding clay cement distribution

  • Nicolaas MolenaarEmail author
  • Jūratė Vaznytė
  • Saulius Šliaupa
Original Paper
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

The change from fossil to geothermal energy supply includes the necessity to re-evaluate gas reservoirs in the Southern Permian Basin of NW Europe, as higher permeability reservoirs are needed for the exploitation of geothermal energy than natural gas. A key reservoir risk in Permian sandstones in the Southern Permian Basin is the presence of clay cement. The distribution of the clay cement is not properly understood. The negative effect can be attributed to complex grain coatings formed by tangential clay directly around the detrital grains followed by authigenic clay rim cement, both being genetically related. This study presents new results on the origin of the tangential and the authigenic clay. The Southern Permian Basin in Lithuania was a marginal area of the basin with low accommodation rates and extensive aridisol development. Here, sandstones of the Perloja Formation contain abundant clayey matrix in the form of grain and void coatings. The limited burial depth of a few hundreds of metres ensured that the original internal fabric and mineralogy of the clay coatings remained well preserved. Thin section microscopy revealed that the clay coatings are cutans that formed by post-depositional mechanical infiltration (illuviation) of suspensions of clay minerals, iron hydroxides and some clay to silt-sized quartz. Other pedogenic features are the development of nodular calcrete, rootlets, and of infiltrated clay. Aridisols were recurrently eroded by fluvial or aeolian activity causing wide-scale dispersion of siliciclastic grains with more or less complete clay cutans and also carbonate (calcrete) clasts in certain stratigraphic intervals.

Keywords

Clay cutans Pedogenesis Clay infiltration Nodular calcrete Gleying Clay rim cement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

PanTerra Geoconsultants B.V., Leiderdorp in the Netherlands is thanked for the generous analytical support and for using their archive and research facilities. We also thank Marita Felder (PanTerra Geoconsultants) for discussions on the Dutch Rotliegend. We are also grateful for the helpful comments of the two reviewers, an anonymous reviewer and Reinhard Gaupp.

References

  1. Andras P (2018) The role of clay mineral diagenesis in overpressure generation and compaction of siliciclastic mudstones. Dissertation, Durham University, 403 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Bezerra CEE, Ferreira TO, Romero RE, Mota JCA, Vieira JM, Duarte LRS, Cooper M (2014) Genesis of cohesive soil horizons from north-east Brazil: role of argilluviation and sorting of sand. Soil Res 53:43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blodgett RH (1988) Calcareous paleosols in the Triassic Dolores Formation, southwestern Colorado. In: Reinhardt J, Sigleo WR (eds) Paleosols and weathering through geological time Principles and Applications, vol 216. Special paper. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brewer R (1960) Cutans: their definition, recognition, and interpretation. J Soil Sci 11:280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brewer R (1964) Fabric and minerals analysis of soils. Wiley, New York, p 470Google Scholar
  6. Brewer R (1972) The basis of interpretation of soil micromorphological data. Geoderma 8:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Busch B, Hilgers C, Adelmann D (2018) Reservoir quality modelling in deeply-buried Permian Rotliegendes sandstones, N-Germany: impact of illite textures. In: 80th EAGE conference and exhibition 2018, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  8. Felder M, Van de Graaff E (2014) Understanding fluvial architecture in modern desert systems: key to modelling Rotliegend reservoir geometries. European association of geoscientists and engineers. In:76th Conference and Exhibition, Extended Abstract, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Folk RL (1974) Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin, p 182Google Scholar
  10. Gaupp R, Okkerman J (2011) Diagenesis and reservoir quality of Rotliegend sandstones in the Northern Netherlands a review. In: Grötsch J, Gaupp R (eds) The Permian Rotliegend of the Netherlands, vol 98. Special Publication. SEPM, Tulsa, pp 193–228Google Scholar
  11. Goudie A (1972) The chemistry of world calcrete deposits. J Geol 80:449–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grötsch J, Gaupp R (eds) (2011) The Permian Rotliegend of the Netherlands, vol 98. Special Publication. SEPM, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  13. Heijnen LJ, Buik NA, Willemsen A, Bakker T, Diephuis G (2009) Opportunities for geothermal energy in Franekeradeel. EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 8-11 June, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. SPE 121985Google Scholar
  14. Hillier S, Fallick AE, Matter A (1996) Origin of pore-lining chlorite in the aeolian Rotliegend of northern Germany. Clay Miner 31:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Howard JK (1992) Influence of authigenic clay minerals on permeability. In: Houseknecht DW, Pittman ED (eds) Origin, diagenesis and petrophysics of clay minerals in sandstones, vol 47. special publication. SEPM, Tulsa, pp 257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klappa KF (1980) Rhizoliths in terrestrial carbonates: classification, recognition, genesis and significance. Sedimentology 27:613–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malicse A, Mazullo J (1996) Early diagenesis and paleosol features of ancient desert sediments: examples from the Permian Basin. In: Crossey LJ, Loucks R, Totten MW (eds) Siliciclastic diagenesis and fluid flow: concepts and applications, vol 55. Special Publication. SEPM, Tulsa, pp 151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matlack KS, Houseknecht DW, Applin KR (1989) Emplacement of clay into sand by infiltration. J Sediment Petrol 59:77–87Google Scholar
  19. Molenaar N (1984) Palaeopedogenic features and their palaeoclimatological significance for the Nèvremont Formation (Lower Givetian), the northern Ardennes, Belgium. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 46:325–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Molenaar N, Felder M (2018) Clay cutans and the origin of illite rim cement: an example from the siliciclastic Rotliegend sandstone in the Dutch Southern Permian Basin. J Sediment Petrol 88:641–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moraes MAS, De Ros LF (1990) Infiltrated clays in fluvial Jurassic sandstones of Reconcavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil. J Sediment Petrol 60:809–819Google Scholar
  22. Moraes MAS, De Ros LF (1992) Depositional, infiltrated and authigenic clays in fluvial sandstones of the Jurassic Sergi Formation, Recôncavo Basin, Northeastern Brazil. In: Houseknecht DW, Pittman ED (eds) Origin, diagenesis and petrophysics of clay minerals in sandstones, vol 47. special publication. SEPM, Tulsa, pp 197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Motuza G, Sliaupa S, Timmerman MJ (2015) Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar age of Early Carboniferous dolerite sills in the southern Baltic Sea. Estonian J Earth Sci 64:233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nadeau PH (1998) An experimental study of the effects of diagenetic clay minerals on reservoir sands. Clays Clay Miner 46:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nadeau PH, Hurst A (1991) Application of back-scattered electron microscopy to the quantification of clay mineral microporosity in sandstones. J Sediment Res 61:921–925Google Scholar
  26. Nagtegaal PJC (1969) Microtextures in recent and fossil caliche. Leidse Geol Meded 42:131–142Google Scholar
  27. Pluymaekers MPD, Kramers L, van Wees JD, Kronimus A, Nelskamp S, Boxem T, Bonté D (2012) Reservoir characterisation of aquifers for direct heat production: methodology and screening of the potential reservoirs for the Netherlands. Neth J Geosci 91:621–636Google Scholar
  28. Schembre JM, Kovscek AR (2005) Mechanism of formation damage at elevated temperature. J Energy Res Technol 127:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seemann U (1979) Diagenetically formed interstitial clay minerals as a factor in Rotliegend sandstone reservoir quality in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. J Pet Geol 1:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Seemann U (1982) Depositional facies, diagenetic clay minerals and reservoir quality of Rotliegend sediments in the Southern Permian basin (North Sea): review. Clay Miner 17:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Šliaupa S, Čyžienė J (1999) Litho- and chemostratigraphy and depositional palaeoenvironments of Lower Triassic sediments in South-Western Lithuania. In: The Fourth Baltic Stratigraphical Conference abstracts„Problems and Methods of Modern Regional Stratigraphy“, Jūrmala, Sep 1999, pp 27–30Google Scholar
  32. Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. United States Department of Agriculture, p 360Google Scholar
  33. Tanner LH, Lucas SG (2006) Calcareous paleosols of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group, Four Corners region, southwestern United States: Climatic implications. In: Alonso-Zarza AM, Tanner LH (eds) Paleoenvironmental record and applications of calcretes and palustrine carbonates, vol 416. Special Paper. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Wijhe DH, Lutz M, Kaasschieter JPH (1980) The Rotliegend in the Netherlands and its gas accumulations. Geol Mijnbouw 59:3–24Google Scholar
  35. Walker TR, Waugh B, Cronea J (1978) Diagenesis in first-cycle desert alluvium of Cenozoic age, southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 89:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilson MD, Pittman ED (1977) Authigenic clays in sandstones: recognition and influence on reservoir properties and paleoenvironmental analysis. J Sediment Petrol 47:3–31Google Scholar
  37. Wilson L, Wilson MJ, Green J, Patey I (2014) The influence of clay mineralogy on formation damage in North Sea reservoir sandstones: a review with illustrative examples. Earth Sci Rev 134:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zdanavičiūtė O, Lazauskienė J (2008) Organic matter of Early Silurian succession—the potential source of unconventional gas in the Baltic Basin (Lithuania). Baltica 22:89–99Google Scholar
  39. Zuzevičius A (ed) (2005) Evolution of geological environment in Lithuania. Institute of Geology and Geography (Lithuania), Vilnius University, Lithuania, p 308Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaas Molenaar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jūratė Vaznytė
    • 2
  • Saulius Šliaupa
    • 2
  1. 1.Molenaar GeoConsultingVoorschotenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Bedrock Geology, Institute of Geology and GeographyNature Research CentreVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations