International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 108, Issue 6, pp 1979–1999 | Cite as

Petrogenesis of early Late Cretaceous Asa-intrusive rocks in central Tibet, western China: post-collisional partial melting of thickened lower crust

  • An-Bo Luo
  • Ming WangEmail author
  • Cai Li
  • Chao-Ming Xie
  • Jian-jun Fan
  • Tian-Yu Zhang
  • Jin-Heng Liu
  • Wei Wang
Original Paper


The timing and mechanisms of collapse of the middle and western segments of the Lhasa–Qiangtang orogenic belt in central Tibet are poorly constrained. Here, we report whole-rock geochemical, and zircon U–Pb age and Hf-isotopic data for the Asa-intrusive rocks located at the southern edge of the northern Lhasa subterrane. The Asa-intrusive rocks include the Namujeler granite porphyry (NGP), the Gernicamdro granodiorite porphyry (GGDP), and the Neeze granodiorite porphyry (NGDP). The NGP and GGDP have adakitic geochemical characteristics, such as high Sr (317–511 ppm), Sr/Y (57.8–96.8), and (La/Yb)N (13.1–16.0), and low Y (4.68–5.49 ppm) and heavy rare-earth element contents (e.g., 0.44 ≤ Yb ≤ 0.57 ppm). In situ zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded Late Cretaceous ages (NGP = 88.7 Ma; GGDP = 89.7 Ma; NGDP = 90.1 Ma). Zircon εHf(t) values vary over a wide range (NGP = − 11.5 to + 9.3; GGDP = + 4.6 to + 7.6; NGDP = − 21.2 to + 7.6). Our results suggest that the Asa adakitic rocks (NGP and GGDP) are most likely generated by partial melting of thickened mafic lower crust under a garnet-bearing amphibolite facies. The presence of the Asa adakitic rocks indicates that the crust beneath the Lhasa–Qiangtang collision zone had experienced thickening and the crustal thickness remains quite large (> 40 km) at ca.90 Ma. On the basis of evidence from the Asa-intrusive suite and coeval igneous rocks, along with some stratigraphic and tectonic constraints, we proposed that the middle and western segments of the Lhasa–Qiangtang orogenic belt was collapsed by lithospheric delamination during the early Late Cretaceous (ca. 94–82 Ma), and the thickened lithospheric keel did not delaminate as a wholly, it delaminated piece by piece. From east to west, the time of the lithospheric delamination is getting younger.


Tibet Lhasa–Qiangtang orogenic belt Orogenic collapse Adakitic rocks Late Cretaceous 



We are not only grateful to Bin Wang and Yu-xuan Zhang for their help in the field, but also to Ms. Li Su, Lin-han Li, Xiao-wen Zeng, and Zhong-wei Gao for their help in the labs. We thank anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41402190 and 41602230) and the Program of China Geological Survey (Grant Nos. 121201010000150014 and DD20160026).


  1. Akçay M, Gündüz Ö (2004) Porphyry Cu–Au mineralisation associated with a multi-phase intrusion, and related replacement fronts in limestones in an island arc setting near the Gümüşhane village (Artvin) in the Eastern Black Sea Province (Turkey). Chem Erde 64(4):359–383Google Scholar
  2. Allègre CJ, Courtillot V, Tapponnier P et al (1984) Structure and evolution of the Himalaya–Tibet orogenic belt. Nature 307:17–22Google Scholar
  3. Andersen T (2002) Correction of common lead in U-Pb analyses that do not report 204Pb. Chem Geol 192:59–79Google Scholar
  4. Arndt NT, Goldstein SL (1989) An open boundary between lower continental crust and mantle: its role in crust formation and crustal recycling. Tectonophysics 161:201–212Google Scholar
  5. Atherton MP, Petford N (1993) Generation of sodium-rich magmas from newly underplated basaltic crust. Nature 362(6416):144–146Google Scholar
  6. Bouvier A, Vervoort JD, Patchett PJ (2008) The Lu–Hf and Sm–Nd isotopic composition of CHUR, constraints from unequilibrated chondrites and implications for the bulk composition of terrestrial planets. Earth Planet Sci Lett 273:48–57Google Scholar
  7. Castillo PR (2006) An overview of adakite petrogenesis. Chin Sci Bull 51:257–268Google Scholar
  8. Castillo PR, Janney PE, Solidum RU (1999) Petrology and geochemistry of Camiguin Island, southern Philippines, Insights to the source of adakites and other lavas in a complex arc setting. Contrib Miner Petrol 134(1):33–51Google Scholar
  9. Chambefort I, Moritz R, Quadt AV (2007) Petrology, geochemistry and U–Pb geochronology of magmatic rocks from the high-sulfidation epithermal Au–Cu Chelopech deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria. Miner Deposita 42(7):665–690Google Scholar
  10. Chen B, Chen CJ, He JB, Liu AK (2013) Origin of Mesozoic high–Mg adakitic rocks from northeastern China, Petrological and Nd–Sr–Os isotopic con–straints (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull (Chin Ver) 58:1941–1953 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  11. Chen Y, Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Meng FY, Wang Q, Santosh M, Wang LQ, Dong GC, Mo XX (2014) Slab breakoff triggered ca. 113 Ma magmatism around Xainza area of the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Gondwana Res 26:449–463Google Scholar
  12. Chen SS, Shi RD, Gong XH, Liu DL, Huang QS, Yi GD, Wu K, Zou HB (2015) A syn-collisional model for early cretaceous magmatism in the northern and central lhasa subterranes. Gondwana Res. Google Scholar
  13. Chen WW, Zhang SH, Ding JK et al (2017) Combined paleomagnetic and geochronological study on Cretaceous strata of the Qiangtang terrane, central Tibet. Gondwana Res 41:373–389Google Scholar
  14. Chung SL, Chu MF, Ji J, O'Reilly SY, Pearson NJ, Liu D, Lee TY, Lo CH (2009) The nature and timing of crustal thickening in Southern Tibet: geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic constraints from postcollisional adakites. Tectonophysics 477(1–2):36–48Google Scholar
  15. Defant MJ, Drummond MS (1990) Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature 347:662–665Google Scholar
  16. Dewey JF, Shackelton RM, Chang C, Sun Y (1988) The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan plateau. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 327:379–413Google Scholar
  17. Ding L, Kapp P, Zhong D, Deng W (2003) Cenozoic volcanism in Tibet: evidence for a transition from Oceanic to continental subduction. J Petrol 44:1833–1865Google Scholar
  18. Fan JJ, Li C, Wang M, Xie CM (2018) Reconstructing in space and time the closure of the middle and western segments of the Bangong–Nujiang tethyan ocean in the tibetan plateau. Int J Earth Sci 107(1):231–249Google Scholar
  19. Gao S, Rudnick RL, Yuan HL, Liu XM, Liu YS, Xu WL, Ling WL, Ayers J, Wang QH (2004) Recycling lower continental crust in the north china craton. Nature 432(7019):892–897Google Scholar
  20. Gao SB, Zheg YY, Xie MC, Zhang Z, Yan XX, Wu B, Luo JJ (2011) Geodynamic setting and mineralizational implication of the Xueru intrusion in Bange, Tibet. Earth Sci J China Univ Geosci 36(4):0729–0739 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  21. Griffin WL, Wang X, Jackson SE, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY, Xu XS, Zhou XM (2002) Zircon chemistry and magmamixing, SE China, in-situ analysis of Hf isotopes, Tonglu and Pingtan igneous complexes. Lithos 61:237–269Google Scholar
  22. Guan JL, Geng QR, Wang GZ, Peng ZM, Zhang Z, Kou FD, Cong F, Li N (2014) Geochemical, zircon U-Pb datingand Hf isotope compositions studies of the granite in Ritu County-Lameila Pass area, North Gangdse, Tibet. Acta Petrol Sin 30(6):1666–1684 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  23. Guo F, Nakamuru E, Fan W, Kobayoshi K, Li C (2007) Generation of palaeocene adakitic andesites by magma mixing; Yanji area, NE China. J Petrol 48(4):661–692Google Scholar
  24. Gutscher MA, Maury R, Eissen JP, Bourdon E (2000) Can slabmelting be caused by flat subduction? Geology 28:535–538Google Scholar
  25. Guynn JH, Kapp P, Pullen A, Heizler M, Gehrels G, Ding L (2006) Tibetan basement rocks near Amdo reveal “missing” Mesozoic tectonism along the Bangong suture, central Tibet. Geology 34(6):505–508Google Scholar
  26. Han WF (2013) Sedimentary characteristics and tectonic significance of the late Cretaceous in the fault basin. Dissertation, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  27. Hastie AR, Kerr AC, Pearce JA, Mitchell SF (2007) Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: development of the th–co discrimination diagram. J Petrol 48(12):2341–2357Google Scholar
  28. Hoskin PWO, Schaltegger U (2003) The composition of zircon and igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis. Rev Miner Geochem 53:27–62Google Scholar
  29. Ji WQ, Wu FY, Chung SL, Li JX, Liu CZ (2009) Zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Gangdese Batholith, Southern Tibet. Chem Geol 262:229–245Google Scholar
  30. Jia GX, Du FJ, Liu W (2007) Determination and Significance of upper cretaceous Jingzhushan Group of Nima Region, Tibet. Geol Surv Res 30(3):172–177 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  31. Jiang JH, Wang RJ, Qu XM, Xin HB, Wang ZZ (2011) Crustal extension of the Bangong Lake Arc Zone, Western Tibetan Plateau, after the closure of the Tethys Oceanic Basin. Earth Sci 36(6):1021–1032 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  32. Kang ZQ, Xu JF, Wang BD, Chen JL (2010) Qushenla Formation volcanic rocks in north Lhasa block: products of Bangong Co-Nujiang Tethyps southward subduction. Acta Petrol Sin 26:3106–3116 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  33. Kapp P, Murphy MA, Yin A, Harrison TM, Ding L, Guo JH (2003) Mesozoic and cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Shiquanhe area of western Tibet. Tectonics 22(4):1–24Google Scholar
  34. Kapp P, Yin A, Harrison TM, Ding L (2005) Cretaceous-tertiary shortening, basin development, and volcanism in central Tibet. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:865–878Google Scholar
  35. Kapp P, Decelles PG, Gehrels GE, Heizler M, Ding L (2007) Geological records of the Cretaceous Lhasa–Qiangtang and Indo-Asian collisions in the Nima basin area, central Tibet. Geol Soc Am Bull 119(7–8):917–932Google Scholar
  36. Kay RW, Kay SM (1993) Delamination and delamination magmatism. Tectonophysics 217:177–189Google Scholar
  37. Kay RW, Kay SM (2002) Andean adakites: three ways to make them. Acta Petrol Sin 18:303–311Google Scholar
  38. Lei M (2016) Early Late Cretaceous magmatic activity in central and north Lhasa subterranes,and their tectonic implication. Dissertation, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  39. Li HL (2014) Signs and Time of Continent–Ocean Transform of the Western Part of Bangong–Nujiang Suture Zone. Dissertation, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  40. Li YL, He J, Wang CS, Santosh M, Dai JG, Zhang YX, Wei YS, Wang JG (2013) Late cretaceous k-rich magmatism in central Tibet: evidence for early elevation of the Tibetan Plateau? Lithos s 160–161(1):1–13Google Scholar
  41. Li HL, Yang S, Li DW, Zhang S, Lv ZW, Chen GF (2014) Geochronology, geochemistry, tectonic setting and metallogenetic significance of the late cretaceous quartz monzonite in the Northwestern Gangdise Terrane. Geotecton Metallog 38(3):694–705 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  42. Li HL, Gao C, Li ZH, Zhang Z, Peng ZM, Guan JL (2016) Age and tectonic significance of Jingzhushan formation in Bangong Lake Area, Tibet. Geotecton Metallog 40(4):663–673 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  43. Liu D, Zhao ZD, Zhu DC, Niu YL, Harrison TM (2014) Zircon xenocrysts in Tibetan ultrapotassic magmas, imaging the deep crust through time. Geology 42:43–46Google Scholar
  44. Liu H, Wang BD, Chen L, Li XB, Wang LQ (2015) Zircon U–Pb geochronology, geochemistry and its tectonic significance of the Rutog Granitic Batholith in the Northwest Lhasa Terrane. Geotecton Metallog 39:1141–1155 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  45. Liu YM, Wang M, Li C, Li SZ, Xie CM, Zeng XW, Dong YC, Liu JH (2018) Late cretaceous tectono-magmatic activity in the Nize region, central Tibet: evidence for lithospheric delamination beneath the Qiangtang-Lhasa collision zone. Int Geol Rev. Google Scholar
  46. Ludwig KR (2003) ISOPLOT 3.0: a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Special Publication No. 4 Berkeley Geochronology CenterGoogle Scholar
  47. Lustrino M (2005) How the delamination and detachment of lower crust can influence basaltic magmatism. Earth Sci Rev 72:21–38Google Scholar
  48. Lv LN, Cui YB, Song L, Zhao YY, Qu XM, Wang JP (2011) Geochemical characteristics and zircon LA–ICP–MS U–Pb dating of Galale skarn gold(copper) deposit, Tibet and its significance. Earth Sci Front 18(5):224–242 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  49. Ma Z (2013) Petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of granitic rocks in Rutog at Northern Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau. Dissertation, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  50. Ma GL, Yue YH (2010) Cretaceous volcanic rocks in northern Lhasa Block, constraints on the tectonic evolution of Gangdise Arc. Acta Petrol Mineral 29(5):525–538 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  51. Macpherson CG, Dreher ST, Thirlwall MF (2006) Adakites without slab melting, high pressure differentiation of island arc magma, Mindanao, the Philippines. Earth Planet Sci Lett 243:581–593Google Scholar
  52. Martin H (1999) Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archean granitoids. Lithos 46:411–429Google Scholar
  53. Martin H, Smithies RH, Rapp R, Moyen JF, Champion D (2005) An overview of adakite, tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG), and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution. Lithos 79(1–2):1–24Google Scholar
  54. Mo XX, Dong GC, Zhao ZF, Zhou S, Wang LL, Qiu RZ, Zhang FQ (2005) Spatial and temporal distribution and characteristics of Granitoids in the Gangdese, Tibet and implication for crustal growth and evolution. Geol J China Univ 11(3):281–290 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  55. Mo XX, Hou ZQ, Niu YL, Dong GC, Qu XM, Zhao ZD, Yang ZM (2007) Mantle contributions to crustal thickening during continental collision: evidence from Cenozoic igneous rocks in southern Tibet. Lithos 96:225–242Google Scholar
  56. Mo XX, Niu YL, Dong GC, Zhao ZD, Hou ZQ, Zhou S, Ke S (2008) Contribution of syncollisional felsic magmatism to continental crust growth: a case study of the Paleogene Linzizong volcanic Succession in southern Tibet. Chem Geol 250:49–68Google Scholar
  57. Murphy MA, Yin A, Harrison TM, Dürr SB, Chen Z, Ryerson FJ, Kidd WSF, Wang X, Zhou X (1997) Did the indo-asian collision alone create the Tibetan Plateau? Geology 25(8):719–722Google Scholar
  58. Pan Y (1993) Unroofing history and structural evolution of the Southern Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau: implications for the continental collision between India and Asia. Dissertation, State University of New York, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  59. Pan GT, Zhu DC, Wang LQ, Liao ZL, Geng QR, Jiang XS (2004) Bangong lake-nu river suture zone—the northern boundary of gondwanaland: evidence from geology and geophysics. Earth Sci Front 11(4):371–382Google Scholar
  60. Pan GT, Mo XX, Hou ZQ, Zhu DC, Wang LQ, Li GM, Zhao ZD, Geng QR, Liao ZL (2006) Spatial–tem poral framework of the Gangdese Orogenic Belt and its evolution. Acta Petrol Sin 22:521–533 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  61. Pan GT, Wang LQ, Li RS, Yuan SH, Ji WH, Yin FG, Zhang WP, Wang BD (2012) Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. J Asian Earth Sci 53:3–14Google Scholar
  62. Prouteau G, Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Maury R (2001) Evidence for mantle metasomatism by hydrous silicic melts derived from subducted oceanic crust. Nature 410(6825):197–200Google Scholar
  63. Qin F, Xu XX, Luo ZH (2006) Mixing and mingling in petrogenesis of the Fangshan intrusion, Beijing. Acta Petrol Sin 22(12):2957–2970 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  64. Qu XM, Xin HB, Xu WY, Yang ZS, Li ZQ (2006) Discovery and significance of copper–bearing bimodal rocks series in Coqin area of Tibet. Acta Petrol Sin 22(3):707–716Google Scholar
  65. Rapp RP, Watson EB (1995) Dehydration melting of metabasalt at 8–32 kbar, implications for continental growth and crust-mantle recycling. J Petrol 36(4):891–931Google Scholar
  66. Rapp RP, Watson EB, Miller CF (1991) Partial melting of amphibolite/eclogite and the origin of archean trondhjemites and tonalites. Precambrian Res 51(1–4):1–25Google Scholar
  67. Rapp RP, Shimizu N, Norman MD, Applegate GS (1999) Reaction between slab–derived melts and peridotite in the mantle wedge, experimental constraints at 3.8 GPa. Chem Geol 160(4):335–356Google Scholar
  68. Saby E, Gotze J (2004) Feldspar crystallization under magma–mixing conditions shown by cathodoluminescence and geochemical modelling—a case study from the Karkonosze Pluton (SW Poland). Mineral Mag 68(4):561–577Google Scholar
  69. Sen C, Dunn T (1994) Dehydration melting of a basaltic composition amphibolite at 1.5 and 2.0 GPa, implications for the origin of adakites. Contrib Miner Petrol 117(4):394–409Google Scholar
  70. Smithies RH (2000) The Archaean tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) series is not an analogue of Cenozoic adakite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 182(1):115–125Google Scholar
  71. Soderlund U, Patchett PJ, Vervoort JD, Isachsen CE (2004) The 176Lu decay constant determined by Lu–Hf and U–Pb isotope systematics of Precambrian mafic intrusions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 219:311–324Google Scholar
  72. Soesoo A, Bons PD, Gray DR, Foster DA (1997) Divergent double subduction: tectonic and petrologic consequences. Geology 25:755–758Google Scholar
  73. Streck MJ, Leeman WP, Chesley J (2007) High–magnesian andesite from Mount Shasta, A product of magma mixing and contamination, not a primitive mantle melt. Geology 35:351–354Google Scholar
  74. Sui QL, Wang Q, Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Chen Y, Santosh M, Hu ZC, Yuan HL, Mo XX (2013) Compositional diversity of ca. 110 Ma magmatism in the northern Lhasa Terrane, Tibet: implications for the magmatic origin and crustal growth in a continent–continent collision zone. Lithos 168–169:144–159Google Scholar
  75. Sun LX (2005) Late Jurassic–Cretaceous sedimentary response to collision process in middle Bangonghu–Nujiang suture. A Dissertation Submitted to China University of Geosciences for Doctoral Degree, Beijing, pp 1–121 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  76. Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) Magmatism in the ocean basins, vol 42. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, pp 313–345.
  77. Sun GY, Hu XM, Zhu DC, Hong WT, Wang JG, Wang Q (2015) Thickened juvenile lower crust–derived ~ 90 Ma adakitic rocks in the central Lhasa terrane. Tibet. Lithos 224:224–225Google Scholar
  78. Tang X, Tao XF (2009) Sedimentary characteristics and tectonic implications of the Jingzhushan Formation in the Coqenregion, Xizang. Sediment Geol Tethyan Geol 29(1):53–57 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  79. Volkmer JE, Kapp P, Guynn JH, Lai Q (2007) Cretaceous-Tertiary structural evolution of the north central Lhasa terrane. Tectonics, Tibet. Google Scholar
  80. Volkmer JE, Kapp P, Horton BK, Gehrels GE, Minervini JM, Ding L (2014) Northern Lhasa thrust belt of central Tibet: evidence of Cretaceous–early Cenozoic shortening within a passive roof thrust system? Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 507:59–70Google Scholar
  81. Wang MZ, Dong DY (1984) Stromatoporoids from the Dongqiao Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) in northern Xizang (Tibet). Acta Palaeontol Sin 23:343–352 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  82. Wang Q, Xu JF, Zhao ZH, Bao ZW, Xu W, Xiong XL (2004a) Cretaceous highpotassium intrusive rocks in the Yueshan-Hongzhen area of east China, adakites in an extensional tectonic regime within a continent. Geochem J 38:417–434Google Scholar
  83. Wang Q, Zhao ZH, Bao ZW, Xu JF, Liu W, Li CF, Bai ZH, Xiong XL (2004b) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Tongshankou and Yinzu adakitic intrusive rocks and the associated porphyry copper–molybdenum mineralization in southeast Hubei, east China. Resource Geology 54:137–152Google Scholar
  84. Wang Q, McDermott F, Xu JF, Bellon H, Zhu YT (2005) Cenozoic K–rich adakitic volcanic rocks in the Hohxil area, northern Tibet, lower crustal melting in an intracontinental setting. Geology 33(6):465–468Google Scholar
  85. Wang Q, Xu JF, Jian P, Bao ZW, Zhao ZH, Li CF, Xiong XL, Ma JL (2006) Petrogenesis of adakitic porphyries in an extensional tectonic setting, Dexing, South China, implications for the genesis of porphyry copper mineralization. J Petrol 47(1):119–144Google Scholar
  86. Wang BD, Xu JF, Liu BM, Chen JL, Wang LQ, Guo L, Wang DB, Zhang WP (2013) Geochronology and ore–forming geological background of 90 Ma porphyry copper deposit in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet Plateau. Acta Geol Sin 87:71–80 (in Chinesewith English abstract) Google Scholar
  87. Wang Q, Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Liu SA, Chung SL, Li SM, Liu D, Dai JG, Wang LQ, Mo XX (2014) Origin of the ca. 90 Mamagnesia–rich volcanic rocks in SE Nyima, central Tibet, products of lithospheric delamination underneath the Lhasa–Qiangtang collision zone. Lithos 198–199:24–37Google Scholar
  88. Wen DR, Chung SL, Song B, Lizuka Y, Yang HJ, Ji JQ, Liu DY, Gallet S (2008) Late Cretaceous Gangdese intrusions of adakitic geochemical characteristics, SE Tibet: petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos 105:1–11Google Scholar
  89. Wiedenbeck M, Allé P, Corfu F, Griffin WL, Meier M, Oberli F, Quadt AV, Roddick JC, Spiegel W (1995) Three natural zircon standards for U–Th–Pb, Lu–Hf, trace element and REE analyses. Geostand Geoanal Res 19:1–23Google Scholar
  90. Winchester JA, Floyd PA (1977) Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements. Chem Geol 20:325–343Google Scholar
  91. Wu FY, Yang YH, Xie LW, Yang JH, Xu P (2006) Hf isotopic compositions of the standard zircons and baddeleyites used in U–Pb geochronology. Chem Geol 234:105–126Google Scholar
  92. Wu ZH, Wu XW, Zhao Z, Lu L, Ye PS, Zhang YL (2014) Shrimp U–Pb isotopic dating of the late cretaceous volcanic rocks and its chronological constraint on the red-beds in Southern Qiangtang Block. Acta Geosci Sin 35(5):567–572 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  93. Xin HB, Qu XM (2006) Geological characteristics and ore_forming epoch of Ri’a copper deposit related to bimodal rock series in Coqen County, western Tibet. Mineral Deposits 25:0477–0482 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  94. Xu JF, Wang Q (2003) Tracing the thickening process of continental crust through studying adakitic rocks: evidence from volcanic rocks in the North Tibet. Earth Sci Front 10(4):401–406 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  95. Xu JF, Shinjio R, Defant MJ, Wang Q, Rapp RP (2002) Origin of Mesozoic adakitic intrusive rocks in the Ningzhen area of east China, partialmelting of delaminated lower continental crust? Geology 30:1111–1114Google Scholar
  96. Yan LL, He ZY, Liu L, Zhao ZD (2015) Magma mixing in the Yandangshan volcanic–intrusive complex, Zhejiang Province, evidence from feldspar zoning of the mafic microgranular enclave. Geol Bull China 34(2/3):466–473 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  97. Yang JH, Wu FY, Chung SL, Wilde SA, Chu MF (2006) A hybrid origin for the Qianshan a—type granite, northeast china, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic evidence. Lithos 89(1):89–106Google Scholar
  98. Yang JH, Wu FY, Wilde SA, Xie LW, Yang YH, Liu XM (2007) Tracing magma mixing in granite genesis, in situ U–Pb dating and Hf–isotope analysis of zircons. Contrib Miner Petrol 153(2):177–190Google Scholar
  99. Yao XF, Tang JX, Li ZJ, Deng SL, Ding S, Hu ZH, Zhang Z (2014) The redefinition of the ore-forming porphyry’s age in Gaerqiong Skarn-type gold—copper deposit, Western Bangong Lake—Nujiang River Metallogenic Belt, Xizang (Tibet). Geol Rev 59(1):193–200 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  100. Yi JK, Wang Q, Zhu DC, Li SM, Liu SA, Wang R, Zhang LL, Zhao ZD (2018) Westward-younging high-Mg adakitic magmatism in central Tibet: record of a westward-migrating lithospheric foundering beneath the Lhasa–Qiangtang collision zone during the Late Cretaceous. Lithos. Google Scholar
  101. Yin A, Harrison TM (2000) Geologic evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 28:211–280Google Scholar
  102. Yin J, Xu J, Liu C, Li H (1988) The Tibetan Plateau: regional stratigraphic context and previous work. R Soc Lond Philos Trans 327:5–52Google Scholar
  103. Yu HX, Chen JL, Xu JF, Wang BD, Wu JB, Liang YH (2011) Geochemistry and originof Late Cretaceous (90 Ma) mineral porphyry of Balazha in mid–northern Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Acta Petrol Sin 27:2011–2022 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  104. Yuan HL, Gao S, Liu XM, Li HM, Günther D, Wu FY (2004) Accurate U–Pb age and trace element determinations of zircon by laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geostand Geoanal Res 28:353–370Google Scholar
  105. Zhai QG, Jahn BM, Wang J, Su L, Mo XX, Wang KL, Tang SH, Lee HY (2013) The Carboniferous ophiolite in the middle of the Qiangtang terrane, Northern Tibet: sHRIMP U–Pb dating, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic characteristics. Lithos 168–169:186–199Google Scholar
  106. Zhang HF, Shao JA (2008) Volcanic lavas of the Yixian Formation in western Liaoning province, China, products of lower crust delamination or magma mixing? Acta Petrol Sin 24(1):37–48 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  107. Zhang JJ, Zheng YD (1996) Review on the mechanisms of orogenic extension. Geol Sci Technol Inf 3:26–34 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  108. Zhang KJ, Xia BD, Wang GM, Li YT, Ye HF (2004) Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, depositional environments, sandstone provenance, and tectonic setting of central Tibet, western China. Geol Soc Am Bull 116:1202–1222Google Scholar
  109. Zhang KJ, Zhang YX, Tang XC, Xia B (2012) Late Mesozoic tectonic evolution and growth of the Tibetan Plateau prior to the Indo-Asian collision. Earth Sci Rev 114:236–249Google Scholar
  110. Zhang S, Shi HF, Hao HJ, Li DW, Li Y, Feng MX (2014) Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic significance of late cretaceous adakites in Bangong Lake, Tibet. J China Univ Geosci 39(5):509–524 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  111. Zhou CY, Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Xu JF, Wang LQ, Chen HH, Xie LW, Dong GC, Zhou S (2008) Petrogenesis of Daxiong Pluton in Western Gangdese, Tibet: zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotopic constraints. Acta Petrol Sin 24:348–358 (in Chinesewith English abstract) Google Scholar
  112. Zhu DC, Pan GT, Mo XX, Wang LQ, Zhao ZD, Liao ZL, Geng QR, Dong GC (2006) Identification for the Mesozoic OIB–type basalts in central Qinghai–Tibetan plateau: geochronology, Geochemistry and their tectonic setting. Acta Geol Sin 80:1312–1328 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  113. Zhu DC, Pan GT, Mo XX, Liao ZL, Jiang XS, Wang LY, Zhao ZD (2007) Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks in the sangxiu formation, central segment of tethyan himalaya: a probable example of plume–lithosphere interaction. J Asian Earth Sci 29(2):320–335Google Scholar
  114. Zhu DC, Pan GT, Wang LQ, Mo XX, Zhao ZD, Zhou CY, Liao ZL, Dong GC, Yuan SH (2008) Tempo-spatial variations of Mesozoic magmatic rocks in the Gangdise belt, Tibet, China, with a discussion of geodynamic setting-related issues. Geol Bull China 27:1535–1550 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  115. Zhu DC, Mo XX, Niu YL, Zhao ZD, Wang LQ, Liu YS, Wu FY (2009) Geochemical investigation of Early Cretaceous igneous rocks along an east–west traverse throughout the central Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Chem Geol 268:298–312Google Scholar
  116. Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Niu YL, Mo XX, Chung SL, Hou ZQ, Wang LQ, Wu FY (2011) The Lhasa Terrane: record of a microcontinent and its histories of drift and growth. Earth Planet Sci Lett 301:241–255Google Scholar
  117. Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Niu Y, Wang Q, Dilek Y, Dong GC, Mo XX (2012) Origin and paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Lhasa Terrane. Geol J China Univ 18(1):1–15 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  118. Zhu DC, Zhao ZD, Niu YL, Dilek Y, Hou ZQ, Mo XX (2013) The origin and pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Gondwana Res 23:1429–1454Google Scholar
  119. Zhu DC, Li SM, Cawood PA, Wang Q, Zhao ZD, Liu SA, Wang LQ (2015) Assembly of the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes in central Tibet by divergent double subduction. Lithos 245:7–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • An-Bo Luo
    • 1
  • Ming Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cai Li
    • 1
  • Chao-Ming Xie
    • 1
  • Jian-jun Fan
    • 1
  • Tian-Yu Zhang
    • 1
  • Jin-Heng Liu
    • 1
  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Earth SciencesJilin UniversityChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations