Advertisement

Syn- to post-rift fault evolution in a failed rift: a reflection seismic study in central Cambay Basin (Gujarat), India

  • Achyuta Ayan MisraEmail author
  • Abhimanyu Maitra
  • Neeraj Sinha
  • Swagata Dey
  • Shashirekha Mahapatra
Original Paper

Abstract

The Barmer and Cambay basins (India) formed as rifts during the Cretaceous to Paleocene, prior to Seychelles–India separation during Late Cretaceous. Both of the rifts failed subsequently and the Seychelles separated from India along the current Saurashtra–Mumbai continental margin. We study the fault kinematics, i.e., fault growth and linkages in the Cambay–Tarapur Block and comment on the fault evolution from syn- to post-rift stages. We use fault plane topography, throw-length and throw-depth plots to understand the kinematics of the fault planes. Throw-length plots show the along-strike linkage of faults. The throw-depth plots are used to understand the down and up dip linkage of the fault planes. Faults originating at the Deccan Traps level and faults confined only to post-rift progressed as single fault planes along-strike throughout their deformation history. Faults initiating within the syn-rift started as multiple along-strike segments and joined together as they grew. Along dip, faults can be classified as (i) faults originating at Deccan Traps and reaching post-rift, (ii) faults originating within syn-rift sediments and reaching post-rift, (iii) faults confined only within syn-rift and (iv) faults confined only within post rift. Some of the syn-rift faults also show spatially and temporally limited compression, indicating their possible oblique-slip nature. The faults were normal-slip or oblique-slip during syn-rift, and thereafter they propagated as normal dip-slip faults, as analysed from fault plane topography showing strike perpendicular ridges. Such ridges may indicate only the last movement on the fault plane. Due to the presence of thick shale horizons in the syn-rift, many faults show soft-linked segments along dip. Hydrocarbon occurrences in the shallow (1200–1600 m) Miocene sands can possibly be attributed to the normal faults controlling fluid flow into the reservoirs. (282 words).

Keywords

Cambay basin Failed rift Syn-rift Reactivation Fault kinematics Normal faults 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Reliance Industries Ltd. for letting us use their data for this study and to submit this work. We also thank Sakunthala Chada, Raghvendra Singh, Tanmoy Mandal and Manjul Misra for their inputs. We thank Stuart Clarke and Rob Knipe for their reviews that improved the manuscript. David McNamara and Wolf-Christian Dullo are thanked for efficient editorial handling. Soumyajit Mukherjee is thanked for commenting on an early version of the manuscript. The results from this study were also presented (Misra et al. 2016) in Rock Deformation and Structures-III conference at Haldwani (India).

Supplementary material

531_2019_1706_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (447 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 446 kb)

References

  1. Ahuja AD, Rao SV, Patel BK, Singh AK, Saini SS, Thattacharry BJ (1990) Structural styles in south Cambay basin-genesis and impact on hydrocarbon accumulation. ONGC Bull 2:11–40Google Scholar
  2. Air BS (2017) Reservoir and hydrocarbon entrapment model for MBS pay in Akholjuni area in Cambay-Tarapur Block of Cambay Basin. In SPG India conference, Jaipur, p 70Google Scholar
  3. Banerjee A, Jha M, Mittal AK, Thomas NJ, Misra KN (2000) The effective source rocks in the north Cambay basin, India. Mar Pet Geol 17:1111–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banerjee A, Pahari S, Jha M, Sinha AK, Jain AK, Kumar N, Thomas NJ, Misra KN, Chandra K (2002) The effective source rocks in the Cambay basin, India. AAPG Bull. 86:433–456Google Scholar
  5. Baudon C, Cartwright J (2008a) 3D seismic characterisation of an array of blind normal faults in the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean. J Struct Geol 30:746–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baudon C, Cartwright J (2008b) Early stage evolution of growth faults: 3D seismic insights from the Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean. J Struct Geol 30:888–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baudon C, Cartwright J (2008c) The kinematics of reactivation of normal faults using high resolution throw mapping. J Struct Geol 30:1072–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhandari LL, Chowdhary LR (1975) Stratigraphic analysis of Kadi and Kalol formations, Cambay Basin, India. AAPG Bull 59:856–871Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharya GC, Yatheesh V (2015) Plate-tectonic evolution of the deep ocean basins adjoining the western continental margin of India—a proposed model for the early opening scenario. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Petroleum geosciences: Indian contexts. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  10. Biswas SK (1987) Regional tectonic framework, structure and evolution of the western marginal basins of India. Tectonophysics 135:307–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biswas SK, Ariketi R, Dubey R, Chandra S (2013) Shale gas evaluation of cambay shale formation in Tarapur Syncline, Cambay Basin, India—a Seismo-geological approach. In SPG India conference, Kochi, p 142Google Scholar
  12. Bladon AJ, Burley SD, Clarke SM, Beaumont H (2015a) Geology and regional significance of the Sarnoo Hills, eastern rift margin of the Barmer Basin, NW India. Basin Res 27:636–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bladon AJ, Clarke SM, Burley SD (2015b) Complex rift geometries resulting from inheritance of pre-existing structures: insights and regional implications from the Barmer Basin rift. J Struct Geol 71:136–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown AA, Davies RK, Treverton AC (2018) Fault core process and clay content derived from XRF analysis: Salina Creek Fault, Utah. In: Dee SJ, Wennberg OP, Ashton M (eds) Subseismic-scale reservoir deformation. Geological Society Special Publications, London, pp 79–100Google Scholar
  15. Bryan SE, Peate IU, Peate DW, Self S, Jerram DA, Mawby MR, Marsh JG, Miller JA (2010) The largest volcanic eruptions on earth. Earth Sci Rev 102:207–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cartwright J, Bouroullec R, James D, Johnson H (1998) Polycyclic motion history of some Gulf Coast growth faults from high-resolution displacement analysis. Geology 26(9):819–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chatterjee CL, Das SK, Katiyar GC, Singh RP, Pramanik K (2013) Sediment architecture of half graben play and its hydrocarbon implication in and around Jetalpur Low, North Cambay Basin, India. In SPG India conference, Kochi, p 178Google Scholar
  18. Childs C, Watterson J, Walsh JJ (1995) Fault overlap zones within developing normal fault systems. J Geol Soc 152:535–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Childs C, Nicol A, Walsh JJ, Watterson J (2003) The growth and propagation of synsedimentary faults. J Struct Geol 25(4):633–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chowdhary LR (1975) Reversal of basement-block motions in Cambay basin, India, and its importance in petroleum exploration. AAPG Bull 59:85–96Google Scholar
  21. Collier JS, Sansom V, Ishizuka O, Taylor RN, Minshull TA, Whitmarsh RB (2008) Age of Seychelles-India break-up. Earth Planet Sci Lett 272:264–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Compton PM (2009) The geology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India, and the origins of its major oil reservoir, the Fatehgarh formation. Pet Geosci 15:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dasgupta S, Mukherjee S (2017) Brittle Shear tectonics in a narrow continental rift: asymmetric nonvolcanic Barmer Basin (Rajasthan, India). J Geol 125:561–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dhar PC, Mukherjee MK, Jain M, Chawla S, Sood A (1987) Hydrocarbon prospects of the western broach depression, Cambay Basin, Gujarat. ONGC Bull 24:39–58Google Scholar
  25. Dolson J, Burley SD, Sunder VR, Kothari V, Naidu B, Whiteley NP, Farrimond P, Taylor A, Direen N, Ananthakrishnan B (2015) The discovery of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India, and its petroleum geology Barmer Basin petroleum geology, India. AAPG Bull 99(3):433–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duffy OB, Bell RE, Jackson CAL, Gawthorpe RL, Whipp PS (2015) Fault growth and interactions in a multiphase rift fault network: Horda Platform, Norwegian North Sea. J Struct Geol 80:99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Faulds JE, Varga RJ (1998) The role of accommodation zones and transfer zones in the regional segmentation of extended terranes. In: Faulds JE, Stewart JH (eds) Accommodation zones and transfer zones: the regional segmentation of the basin and range province, vol 323. Geological Society of America Special Paper, Boulder, pp 1–45Google Scholar
  28. Faulkner DR, Jackson CAL, Lunn RJ, Schlische RW, Shipton ZK, Wibberley CAJ, Withjack MO (2010) A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones. J Struct Geol 32:1557–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fossen H (2010) Structural geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge., p 463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fossen H, Rotevatn A (2016) Fault linkage and relay structures in extensional settings—a review. Earth Sci Rev 154:14–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gambhir SC (1978) Reversal of basement-block motions in Cambay basin, India, and its importance in petroleum exploration: discussion. AAPG Bull 62:2489–2491Google Scholar
  32. Garg AK, Philp RP (1994) Pyrolysis-gas chromatography of asphaltenes/kerogens from source rocks of the Gandhar Field, Cambay Basin, India. Org Geochem 21:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gawthorpe RL, Leeder MR (2000) Tectono-sedimentary evolution of active extensional basins. Basin Res 12(3–4):195–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gibbons AD, Whittaker JM, Müller RD (2013) The breakup of East Gondwana: assimilating constraints from Cretaceous ocean basins around India into a best-fit tectonic model. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 118:808–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gillespie P, Casini G, Iben H, O’Brien JF (2018) Simulation of subseismic joint and fault networks using a heuristic mechanical model. In: Ashton M, Dee SJ, Wennberg OP (eds) Subseismic-scale reservoir deformation, vol 459. Geological Society, London, Special publication, pp 177–190Google Scholar
  36. Gupta ML (1981) Surface heat flow and igneous intrusion in the Cambay basin, India. J Volcanol Geoth Res 10:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gupta ML, Verma RK, Hamza VM, Rao GV, Rao R (1970) Terrestrial heat flow and tectonics of the Cambay basin, Gujarat State (India). Tectonophysics 10:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Heidbach O, Rajabi M, Reiter K, Ziegler M, WSM Team (2016) World stress map database release 2016. GFZ data services.  https://doi.org/10.5880/WSM.2016.001 Google Scholar
  39. Hongxing G, Anderson JK (2007) Fault throw profile and kinematics of normal fault-conceptual models and geologic examples. Geol J China Univ 13:75–88Google Scholar
  40. DGH India (2017) The Cambay Rift Basin, p 9. http://dghindia.gov.in//assets/downloads/56cfe9a4c0c6eThe_Cambay_rift_Basin.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  41. Jackson CAL, Rotevatn A (2013) 3D seismic analysis of the structure and evolution of a salt-influenced normal fault zone: a test of competing fault growth models. J Struct Geol 54:215–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jackson CAL, Bell RE, Rotevatn A, Tvedt AB (2017) Techniques to determine the kinematics of synsedimentary normal faults and implications for fault growth models. In: Childs C, Holdsworth RE, Jackson CA-L, Manzocchi T, Walsh JJ, Yielding G (eds) The geometry and growth of normal faults, vol 439. Geological Society, London, Special Publications.  https://doi.org/10.1144/SP439.22
  43. Kaila KL, Krishna VG, Mall DM (1981) Crustal structure along Mehmadabad-Billimora profile in the Cambay basin, India, from deep seismic soundings. Tectonophysics 76(1–2):99–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaila KL, Tewari HC, Krishna VG, Dixit MM, Sarkar D, Reddy MS (1990) Deep seismic sounding studies in the north Cambay and Sanchor basins, India. Geophys J Int 103:621–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar R, Phukan RK, Baral MJ, Sharma MR, Mayor S (2008) Rift architecture and its control on syn-rift sedimentation in Ahmedabad block, Cambay basin. In SPG India conference, Hyderabad, p 328Google Scholar
  46. Kundu J, Wani MR, Thakur RK (1993) Structural styles in South Cambay Rift Basin and its control on post rift deltaic sedimentation. In: Biswas SK, Dave A, Garg P, Pandey J, Maithani A, Thomas NJ (eds) In Proceedings of the 2nd seminar on petroliferous Basins of India, vol 2, pp 79–96. Indian Petroleum Publications, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  47. Mansfield CS, Cartwright JA (1996) High resolution fault displacement mapping from three-dimensional seismic data: evidence for dip linkage during fault growth. J Struct Geol 18:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mathur LP, Rao KLN, Chaube AN (1980) Tectonic framework of Cambay basin, India. ONGC Bull 17:203–222Google Scholar
  49. Mathuria TK, Julka AC, Dimri PK, Pandey PB (2011) Hydrocarbon prospectivity in stratigraphic traps within Cambay Shale, Broach Sub Block, Cambay Basin. Search and Discovery Article, India, p 10326Google Scholar
  50. Milliotte C, Jonoud S, Wennberg OP, Matthäi SK, Jurkiw A, Mosser L (2018) Well-data-based discrete fracture and matrix modelling and flow-based upscaling of multilayer carbonate reservoir horizons. In: Dee SJ, Wennberg OP, Ashton M (eds) Subseismic-scale reservoir deformation, vol 459. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 191–210Google Scholar
  51. Minissale A, Chandrasekharam D, Vaselli O, Magro G, Tassi F, Pansini GL, Bhramhabut A (2003) Geochemistry, geothermics and relationship to active tectonics of Gujarat and Rajasthan thermal discharges, India. J Volcanol Geoth Res 127:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Misra AA, Mukherjee S (2015) Tectonic inheritance in continental rifts and passive margins. SpringerBriefs in Earth Sciences, Berlin, p 88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Misra AA, Mukherjee S (2017) Dyke-brittle shear relationships in the Western Deccan strike slip zone around Mumbai (Maharashtra, India). In: Mukherjee S, Misra AA, Calvès G, Nemčok M (eds) Tectonics of the deccan large igneous province, vol 445. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 269–295Google Scholar
  54. Misra AA, Mukherjee S (2018) Atlas of structural geological interpretation from seismic images, p 232. ISBN: 978-1-119-15832-5Google Scholar
  55. Misra AA, Bhattacharya G, Mukherjee S, Bose N (2014) Near N-S paleo-extension in the western Deccan region, India: does it link strike-slip tectonics with India-Seychelles rifting? Int J Earth Sci 103:1645–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Misra AA, Sinha N, Mukherjee S (2015) Repeat ridge jumps and microcontinent separation: insights from NE Arabian Sea. Mar Pet Geol 59:406–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Misra AA, Maitra A, Sinha N, Dey S, Mahapatra S (2016) Growth of normal faults in a failed rift: an example from Cambay Basin, India. Rock deformation and structures, vol 4, pp 18–20. Haldwani, Uttarakhand, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  58. Mohammedyasin SM, Lippard SJ, Omosanya KO, Johansen SE, Harishidayat D (2016) Deep-seated faults and hydrocarbon leakage in the Snøhvit gas field, Hammerfest Basin, Southwestern Barents Sea. Mar Pet Geol 77:160–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mukherjee MK (1983) Petroleum prospects of cretaceous sediments of the Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India. J Pet Geol 5:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mukherjee S (2013a) Higher Himalaya in the Bhagirathi section (NW Himalaya, India): its structures, backthrusts and extrusion mechanism by both channel flow and critical taper mechanisms. Int J Earth Sci 102:1851–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mukherjee S (2013b) Channel flow extrusion model to constrain dynamic viscosity and Prandtl number of the higher Himalayan Shear Zone. Int J Earth Sci 102:1811–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mukherjee S (2014a) Review of flanking structures in meso-and micro-scales. Geol Mag 151:957–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mukherjee S (2014b) Atlas of shear zone structures in meso-scale. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mukherjee S (2015a) A review on out-of-sequence deformation in the Himalaya. In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek P, Mukherjee BK, Robinson D (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya, vol 412. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 67–109Google Scholar
  65. Mukherjee S (2015b) Atlas of structural geology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  66. Mukherjee S (2017) Airy’s isostatic model: a proposal for a realistic case. Arab J Geosci 10:268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2009) Flanking microstructures. Geol Mag 146:517–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mukherjee S, Kumar N (2018) A first-order model for temperature rise for uniform and differential compression of sediments in basins. Int J Earth Sci 107: 2999–3004Google Scholar
  69. Mukherjee S, Carosi R, van der Beek PA, Mukherjee BK, Robinson DM (2015) In: Mukherjee S, Carosi R, Mukherjee BK, Robinson D (eds) Tectonics of the Himalaya: an introduction, vol 412. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  70. Negi AS, Sahu SK, Thomas PD, Raju DSAN, Chand R, Ram J (2006) Fusing geologic knowledge and seismic in searching for subtle hydrocarbon traps in India’s Cambay Basin. Lead Edge 25(7):872–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nicol A, Watterson J, Walsh JJ, Childs C (1996) The shapes, major axis orientations and displacement patterns of fault surfaces. J Struct Geol 18:235–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pochat S, Castelltort S, Choblet G, Van Den Driessche J (2009) High-resolution record of tectonic and sedimentary processes in growth strata. Mar Pet Geol 26:1350–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Raju ATR (1968) Geological evolution of Assam and Cambay Tertiary basins of India. AAPG Bull 52:2422–2437Google Scholar
  74. Raju ATR, Chaube AN, Chowdhary LR (1971) Deccan trap and the geologic framework of the Cambay Basin. Bull Volcanol 35:521–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ray DS, Mayor S (2006) Syn-rift sequences through transfer zones–thrust Area for future exploration in Cambay Basin, Western India. In 6th International conference & exposition on petroleum geophysics, Kolkata, pp 957–962Google Scholar
  76. Rosendahl BR (1987) Architecture of continental rifts with special reference to East Africa. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 15:445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rouby D, Guillocheau F, Robin C, Bouroullec R, Raillard S, Castelltort S, Nalpas T (2003) Rates of deformation of an extensional growth fault/raft system (offshore Congo, West African margin) from combined accommodation measurements and 3-D restoration. Basin Res 15:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roychoudhury SC, Mathur RB, Mishra GS (1972) Subsurface stratigraphy of Tharad-Serau area, Gujarat. ONGC Bull 9:57–74Google Scholar
  79. Sahoo M, Chakrabarti SK (2013) Structural modelling of inversion structures: a case study on South Cambay Basin. In SPG India conference, Kochi, p 065Google Scholar
  80. Sahoo TR, Choudhuri M (2011) Tectono-sedimentary evolution of Northern part of Cambay Basin. In The 2nd South Asian geoscience conference and exhibition, GEOIndia, New Delhi. http://www.apgindia.org/pdf/593.pdf. Accessed 19 Nov 2015
  81. Shukla KM, Saha PK (2011) Seismic image analysis to map fractures network associated with structural heterogeneity for hydrocarbon prospect in basement exploration. Geohorizons 32–38Google Scholar
  82. Sibson RH (1995) Selective fault reactivation during basin inversion: potential for fluid redistribution through fault-valve action. In: Buchanan JG, Buchanan PG (eds) Basin inversion, vol 88. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  83. Tewari HC, Dixit MM, Sarkar D, Kaila KL (1991) A crustal density model across the Cambay basin, India, and its relationship with the Aravallis. Tectonophysics 194:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thiagarajan S, Ramana DV, Rai SN (2001) Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of the Cambay basin. J Earth Syst Sci 110:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tvedt AB, Rotevatn A, Jackson CAL, Fossen H, Gawthorpe RL (2013) Growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences: a 3D seismic case study from the Egersund Basin, Norwegian North Sea. J Struct Geol 55:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tvedt AB, Rotevatn A, Jackson CA (2016) Supra-salt normal fault growth during the rise and fall of a diapir: perspectives from 3D seismic reflection data, Norwegian North Sea. J Struct Geol 91:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. van Gent HW (2010) Stress and strain from reflection seismic data. Ph.D. thesis. Geology—Endogenous Dynamics, RWTH AachenGoogle Scholar
  88. van Gent HW, Holland M, Urai JL, Loosveld R (2010) Evolution of fault zones in carbonates with mechanical stratigraphy–Insights from scale models using layered cohesive powder. J Struct Geol 32:1375–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wennberg OP, Rennan L (2018) A brief introduction to the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for analysis of natural deformation structures in reservoir rocks. In: Dee SJ, Wennberg OP, Ashton M (eds) Subseismic-scale reservoir deformation. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 101–120Google Scholar
  90. Zhang Y, Schaubs PM, Zhao C, Ord A, Hobbs BE, Barnicoat AC (2008) Fault-related dilation, permeability enhancement, fluid flow and mineral precipitation patterns: numerical models. In: Wibberley CAJ, Kurz W, Imber J, Holdsworth RE, Collettini C (eds) The internal structure of fault zones: implications for mechanical and fluid-flow properties, vol 299. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, pp 239–255Google Scholar
  91. Zhang Y, Gartrell A, Underschultz JR, Dewhurst DN (2009) Numerical modelling of strain localisation and fluid flow during extensional fault reactivation: implications for hydrocarbon preservation. J Struct Geol 31:315–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zutshi PL, Panwar MS (1997) Geology of petroliferous basins of India. KDM Institute of Petroleum Exploration, ONGC publication, Dehradun, p 139Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Petroleum ExplorationReliance Industries LtdMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Software Integrated SolutionsSchlumberger Asia Services Ltd.GurgaonIndia
  3. 3.Larsen and Toubro InfotechMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.School of Earth SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations