Advertisement

International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 107, Issue 6, pp 2101–2123 | Cite as

Review of the Cambrian volcanic activity in Morocco: geochemical fingerprints and geotectonic implications for the rifting of West Gondwana

  • André Pouclet
  • Hassan El Hadi
  • J. Javier Álvaro
  • Jacques-Marie Bardintzeff
  • Mohammed Benharref
  • Abdelilah Fekkak
Original Paper

Abstract

Volcanic activities related to the opening of a Cambrian rift in Morocco were widespread from the Fortunian to the Cambrian Epoch 3. Numerous data are available from northwestern volcanic sites, particularly in the western High Atlas, but they are scarce from the southeastern sites. New data are documented here from the volcanic formations exposed in the Jbel Tazoult n’Ouzina of the Tafilalt Province, eastern Anti-Atlas and dated to Cambrian Epoch 2–3. The Cambrian volcanic activities recorded in the High Atlas, Anti-Atlas, and Coastal Meseta are synthesized to refine their stratigraphic setting and to characterize their magmatic affinities and fingerprints. Six volcanic pulses are determined as tholeiitic, transitional, and alkaline suites. The tholeiitic and transitional magmas originated from primitive mantle and E-MORB-type sources with a spinel- and garnet-bearing lherzolite composition. Some of them were modified by assimilation–fractional crystallisation processes during crust–mantle interactions. The alkaline magmas fit with an OIB-type and a garnet-bearing lherzolite source. The palaeogeographic distribution of the magmatic suites was controlled by the lithospheric thinning of the Cambrian Atlas Rift and lithospheric constraints of the Pan-African metacraton and West African craton.

Keywords

Continental rift Tholeiitic and transitional magmatism Intra-plate alkaline magmatism Cambrian Atlas Rift High Atlas Anti-Atlas Moroccan Meseta 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first draft of this work gained from constructive reviews of Jean-Paul Liégeois and Abderrahmane Soulaimani. We greatly appreciated accurate criticism of Gerhard Franz and an anonymous reviewer for performing the organisation of the paper. This paper is a contribution to project CGL2013-48877-P from Spanish MINECO.

Supplementary material

531_2018_1590_MOESM1_ESM.xls (76 kb)
Table 4 Selected analyses from the literature. From the references of Table 2, we only retain analyses with incompatible trace-element data. Highly altered lavas are discarded. However, we allowed some analyses with alkalies and lime depletion or spilitic enrichment if the immobile elements seem to be not abnormal. Abbreviations of the sources: A-08, Álvaro et al. (2008a); B-17, Benaouda et al. (2017); C-13, Chèvremont et al. (2013); E-06, El Hadi et al. (2006); O-03, Ouali et al. (2003); O-17, Ouanaimi et al. (2017); P-07, Pouclet et al. (2007); P-08, Pouclet et al. (2008); S-04, Soulaimani et al. (2004) (XLS 75 KB)

References

  1. Aarab A, Pouclet A, Bouabdelli M (2005) Riftogenèse au Cambrien inférieur dans le nord-ouest du Paléogondwana. Exemple de la marge sud-est du Haut-Atlas occidental du Maroc. Ann Soc Géol Nord 12:77–85Google Scholar
  2. Algouti Ab, Algouti Ah, Beauchamp J, Chbani B, Taj-Eddine K (2000) Paléogéographie d’une plateforme infracambrienne en dislocation: série de base adoudounienne de la région Waoufengha-Igherm, Anti-Atlas occidental, Maroc. C R Acad Sci Paris 330:155–160Google Scholar
  3. Algouti Ab, Algouti Ah, Chbani B, Zaim M (2001) Sédimentation et volcanisme synsédimentaire de la série de base de l’adoudounien infra-cambrien à travers deux exemples de l’Anti-Atlas du Maroc. J Afr Earth Sci 32:541–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Álvaro JJ (2013) Late Ediacaran syn-rift/post-rift transition and related fault-driven hydrothermal systems in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Basin Res 25:348–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Álvaro JJ (2014) Rift, pull-apart rift, and continental drift crossword puzzles across the lower-middle Cambrian transition of Iberia and Morocco. Geol Fören Stockh Förh GFF 136:2–5Google Scholar
  6. Álvaro JJ, Clausen S (2005) Major geodynamic and sedimentary constraints on the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Lower–Middle Cambrian transition in the western Mediterranean region. Geosci J 9:145–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Álvaro JJ, Clausen S (2006) Microbial crusts as indicators of stratigraphic diastems in the Cambrian Micmacca Breccia, Moroccan Atlas. Sedim Geol 185:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Álvaro JJ, Clausen S (2007) Botoman (Lower Cambrian) turbid- and clear-water reefs and associated environments from the High Atlas, Morocco. In: Álvaro JJ, Aretz M, Boulvain F, Munnecke A, Vachard D, Vennin E (eds), Palaeozoic reefs and bioaccumulations: climatic and evolutionary controls, vol 275. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 51–70Google Scholar
  9. Álvaro JJ, Clausen S (2008) Paleoenvironmental significance of Cambrian hiatal shell accumulations in an intracratonic aborted rift, Atlas Mountains, Morocco. In: Pratt BR, Holmden C (eds) Dynamics of Epeiric Seas, vol 48. Geol Ass Canada Spec Pap, pp39–54Google Scholar
  10. Álvaro JJ, Debrenne F (2010) The Great Atlasian Reef Complex: an early Cambrian subtropical fringing belt that bordered West Gondwana. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 294:120–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Álvaro JJ, Subías I (2011) Interplay of phosphogenesis and hydrothermalism in the latest Ediacaran rift of the High Atlas, Morocco. J Afr Earth Sci 59:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Álvaro JJ, Rouchy JM, Bechstädt T, Boucot A, Boyer F, Debrenne F, Moreno-Eiris E, Perejón A, Vennin E (2000) Evaporitic constraints on the southward drifting of the western Gondwana margin during Early Cambrian times. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimat Palaeoecol 160:105–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Álvaro JJ, Ezzouhairi H, Vennin E, Ribeiro ML, Clausen S, Charif A, Aït-Ayad N, Moreira ME (2006a) The Early-Cambrian Boho volcano of El Graara massif, Morocco: petrology, geodynamic setting and coeval sedimentation. J Afr Earth Sci 44:396–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Álvaro JJ, Clausen S, El Albani A, Chellai EH (2006b) Facies distribution of Lower-Cambrian cryptic microbial and epibenthic archaeocyathan-microbial communities in the western Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Sedimentology 53:35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Álvaro JJ, Macouin M, Ezzouhairi H, Ribeiro ML, Ader M, Charif A, Aït-Ayad N (2008a) Late Neoproterozoic carbonate productivity in a rifting context: the Adoudou formation and its associated bimodal volcanism onlapping the western Saghro inlier, Morocco. In: Ennih N, Liégeois JP (eds) The Boundaries of the West African Craton, vol 297. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 285–302Google Scholar
  16. Álvaro JJ, Ezzouhairi H, Aït-Ayad N, Charif A, Popov L, Ribeiro ML (2008b) Short-term episodes of carbonate productivity in a Cambrian uplifted shoulder of the Coastal Meseta, Morocco. Gondwana Res 14:410–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Álvaro JJ, Bellido F, Gasquet D, Pereira MF, Quesada C, Sánchez-García T (2014a) Diachronism in the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: a comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone. J Afr Earth Sci 98:113–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Álvaro JJ, Benziane F, Thomas R, Walsh GJ, Yazidi A (2014b) Neoproterozoic-Cambrian stratigraphic framework of the Anti-Atlas and Ouzellagh promontory (High Atlas), Morocco. J Afr Earth Sci 98:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Álvaro JJ, Aretz M, Benharref M, Hibti M, Pouclet A, El Hadi H, Koukaya A, Ettachfini EM, Boudad L (2014c) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Tawz. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 551. Mémoire explicatif 551 bisGoogle Scholar
  20. Álvaro JJ, Benharref M, Hibti M, Boudad L (2014d) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Irara. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 552. Mémoire explicatif 552 bisGoogle Scholar
  21. Álvaro JJ, Ezzouhairi H, Clausen S, Ribeiro ML, Solá R (2015) Syn-rift unconformities punctuating the lower-middle Cambrian transition in the Atlas Rift, Morocco. Int J Earth Sci 104:753–773.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-014-1108-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Álvaro JJ, Shields GA, Ahlberg P, Jensen S, Palacios T (2016) Ediacaran–Cambrian phosphorites from the western margins of Gondwana and Baltica. Sedimentology 63:350–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Angoud M, Atik M, Benchra M, Cherifi A, Daimi A, Driouiche H, El Houari N, El Khlifi A, El Maoukour A, El Mouatani A, Essaifi M, Igadayne M, Labriki M, Mimet A, Yahyaoui L (2014) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Talat n’Yakoub. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 455Google Scholar
  24. Baidder L, Raddi Y, Tahiri M, Michard A (2008) Devonian extension of the Pan-African crust north of the West African craton, and its bearing on the Variscan foreland deformation: evidence from eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco). In: Ennih N, Liégeois JP (eds) The boundaries of the West African Craton, vol 297. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 453–465Google Scholar
  25. Baidder L, Michard A, Soulaimani A, Fekkak A, Eddebbi A, Rjimati E-C (2016) Fold interference pattern in thick-skinned tectonics; a case study from the external Variscan belt of Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. J Afr Earth Sci 119:204–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benaouda R, Holzheid A, Schenk V, Badra L, Ennaciri A (2017) Magmatic evolution of the Jbel Boho alkaline complex in the Bou Azzer inlier (Anti-Atlas/Morocco) and its relation to REE mineralization. J Afr Earth Sci 129:202–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benharref M, Álvaro JJ, Hibti M, Pouclet A, El Hadi H, Boudad L (2014a) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Marzouga. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 553, Mémoire explicatif 553 bisGoogle Scholar
  28. Benharref M, Hibti M, Pouclet A, El Hadi H, Koukaya A (2014b) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Mfis. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 554, Mémoire explicatif 554 bisGoogle Scholar
  29. Benharref M, Álvaro JJ, Hibti M, Pouclet A, El Hadi H, Koukaya A, Ettachfini EM (2014c) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Al Atrous. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 555, Mémoire explicatif 555 bisGoogle Scholar
  30. Benssaou M, Hamoumi N (2003) The Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlas graben tectonic control of paleogeography and sequential organisation. C R Géosci 335:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Benziane F, Yazidi A, Walsh GJ, Armstrong TR, Kouhen MA, Yazidi M, El Khamlichi, Aleinikoff JN (2002) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000 feuille Afouzar. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 422, Mémoire explicatif 422 bisGoogle Scholar
  32. Bernardin C, Cornée JJ, Corsini M, Mayol S, Muller J, Taychi M (1988) Variations d’épaisseur du Cambrien moyen en Meseta marocaine occidentale: signification géodynamique des données de surface et de subsurface. Can J Earth Sci 25:2104–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Blein O, Baudin T, Chèvremont Ph, Soulaimani A, Admou H, Gasquet D, Cocherie A, Egal E, Youbi N, Razin Ph, Bouabdelli N, Gombert Ph (2014) Geochronological constraints on the polycyclic magmatism in the Bou Azzer-El Graara inlier (Central Anti-Atlas, Morocco). J Afr Earth Sci 99:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cabanis B, Lécolle M (1989) Le diagramme La/10-Y/15-Nb/8: un outil pour la discrimination des séries volcaniques et la mise en évidence des processus de mélange et/ou de contamination crustale. C R Acad Sci Paris 309 sér 2:2023–2029Google Scholar
  35. Chèvremont Ph, Blein O, Razin Ph, Baudin T, Barbanson L, Gasquet D, Soulaimani A, Admou H, Youbi N, Bouabdelli M, Anzar-Conseil (2013) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Bou Azzer. Notes Mém Serv géol Maroc 535, Notice explicative 535 bisGoogle Scholar
  36. Compston W, Williams IS, Kirschvink JL, Zichao Z, Guogan M (1992) Zircon U–Pb ages for the Early Cambrian time-scale. J Geol Soc Lond 149:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dalziel IWD (1997) Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: review, hypothesis, environmental speculation. Geol Soc Am Bull 109:16–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. De Koning G (1957) Géologie des Ida ou Zal (Maroc). Stratigraphie, pétrographie et tectonique de la partie SW du bloc occidental du massif ancien du Haut Atlas. Leidse Geol Meded 23:1–209Google Scholar
  39. Debrenne F, Debrenne M (1995) Archaeocyaths of the Lower Cambrian of Morocco. Beringeria Spec Issue 2:121–145Google Scholar
  40. DePaolo DJ (1981) Trace element and isotopic effects of combined wall-rock assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 53:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Destombes J (2006) Carte géologique de l’Anti-Atlas marocain. Paléozoïque inférieur: Cambrien moyen et supérieur, Ordovicien, base du Silurien. Feuille Tafilalt Taouz. Chap E Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 244 bisGoogle Scholar
  42. Destombes J, Hollard H (1986) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/200,000, feuille Tafilalt-Taouz. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 244Google Scholar
  43. Destombes J, Hollard H, Du Dresnay R, Hindermeyer J, Emberger A, Caia J (1988) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/200,000, feuille Todhra-Maider. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 243Google Scholar
  44. Ducrot J, Lancelot JR (1977) Problème de la limite Précambrien–Cambrien: étude radiochronologique par la méthode U–Pb sur zircon du Jbel Boho (Anti-Atlas marocain). Can J Earth Sci 14:2771–2777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. El Kamel F, Remmal T, Moshine A (1998) Mise en évidence d’un magmatisme alcalin d’intraplaque post-Calédonien dans le basin silurien des Ouled Abbou (Meseta côtière, Maroc). C R Acad Sci Paris 327:309–314Google Scholar
  46. El Archi A, El Houicha M, Jouhari A, Bouabdelli M (2004) Is the Cambrian basin of the Western High Atlas (Morocco) related either to a subduction zone or a major shear zone? J Afr Earth Sci 39:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. El Hadi H, Tahiri A, Simancas Cabrera F, González Lodeiro F, Azor Pérez A, Martínez Poyatos DJ (2006) Un exemple de volcanisme calco-alcalin de type orogénique mis en place en contexte de rifting (Cambrien de l’oued Rhrbar, Meseta occidentale, Maroc). C R Geosci 338:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ennih N, Liégeois JP (2001) The Moroccan Anti-Atlas: the West African Craton passive margin with limited Pan-African activity. Implications for the northern limit of the craton. Precambr Res 112:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ezzouhairi H, Ribeiro ML, Aït Ayad N, Moreira ME, Charif A, Ramos JMF, de Oliveira DPS, Coke C (2008) The magmatic evolution at the Moroccan outboard of the West Africa craton between the Late Neoproteropzoic and the Early Palaeozoic. In: Ennih N, Liégeois JP (eds) The Boundaries of the West African Craton, vol 297. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 329–343Google Scholar
  50. Faure M, Bé Mézème E, Duguet M, Cartier C, Talbot JY (2005) Paleozoic tectonic evolution of medio-Europa from the example of the French massif central and massif Armoricain. J Vis Expl 19(5):26Google Scholar
  51. Fekkak A, Ouanaimi EM, Ettachfini H, El Arabi H, Jouhari A, Aarab A, Baidder L (2017) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Amezmiz. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc in pressGoogle Scholar
  52. Gasquet D, Levresse G, Cheilletz A, Azizi-Samir MR, Mouttaqi A (2005) Contribution to a geodynamic reconstruction of the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) during Pan-African times with the emphasis on inversion tectonics and metallogenic activity at the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. Precambr Res 140:157–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Geyer G, Landing E (2006) Ediacaran–Cambrian depositional environments and stratigraphy of the western Atlas regions. Explanatory descriptions and field excursion guide. Beringeria Spec Issue 5:1–120Google Scholar
  54. Geyer G, Landing E, Heldmaier W (1995) Faunas and depositional environments of the Cambrian of the Moroccan Atlas region. Beringeria Spec Issue 44(2):47–120Google Scholar
  55. Gigout M (1956) Le volcan sous-marin d’âge acadien de Sidi Saïd Maâchou (Maroc occidental). Bull Soc Géol France 6:559–574Google Scholar
  56. Hollard H, Choubert G, Breunner G, Marchant J, Sougy L (1985) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/1,000,000. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 260Google Scholar
  57. Holm PE (1985) The geochemical fingerprints of different tectonomagmatic environments using hygromagmatophile element abundances of tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites. Chem Geol 51:303–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. International Chronostratigraphy Chart (2017) Phanerozoic and Precambrian chronostratigraphy Internat Comm Stratigraphy. http://www.stratigraphy.org. Accessed 10 Jan 2018
  59. Jouhari A, El-Archi, Aarab M, El-Attari A, Ennih N, Laduron D (2001) Géochimie et cadre géodynamique du volcanisme néoprotérozoïque terminal (vendien) du Haut Atlas occidental, Maroc. J Afr Earth Sci 32:695–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Karaoui B, Breitkreuz C, Mahmoudi A, Youbi N, Hofmann M, Gärtner A, Linnemann U (2015) U–Pb zircon ages from volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Ediacaran Bas Draâ inlier (Anti-Atlas Morocco): chronostratigraphic and provenance implications. Precamb Res 263:43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Khattach D, Najid D (1994) Paléomagnétisme du volcanisme de Bou-Acila (Méséta centrale, Maroc). J Afr Earth Sci 19:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Labriki M (1996) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/100,000, feuille Amizmiz. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 372Google Scholar
  63. Landing E, Bowring SA, Davidek KL, Westrop SR, Geyer G, Heldmaier W (1998) Duration of the Early Cambrian: U–Pb ages from Avalon and Gondwana. Can J Earth Sci 35:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Liégeois JP, Abdelsalam MG, Ennih N, Ouabadi A (2013) Metacraton: nature, genesis and behavior. Gondwana Res 23:220–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Linnemann U, Pereira F, Jeffries TE, Drost K, Gerdes A (2008) The Cadomian Orogeny and the opening of the Rheic Ocean: the diachrony of geotectonic processes constrained by LA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon dating (Ossa-Morena and Saxo-Thuringian Zones, Iberian and Bohemian Massifs). Tectonophysics 461:21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Linnemann U, Herbosch A, Liégeois J-P, Pin C, Gärtner A, Hofmann M (2012) The Cambrian to Devonian odyssey of the Brabant Massif within Avalonia: a review with new zircon ages, geochemistry, Sm–Nd isotopes, stratigraphy and palaeogeography. Earth Sci Rev 112:126–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maloof AC, Schrag DP, Crowley JL, Bowring SA (2005) An expanding record of Early Cambrian carbon cycling from the Anti-Atlas Margin, Morocco. Can J Earth Sci 42:2195–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McDonough WF, Sun SS (1995) The composition of the Earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Michard A, Soulaimani A, Hoepffner C, Ouanaimi H, Baidder L, Rjimati EC, Saddiqi O (1910) The South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt: evidence from Morocco. Tectonophysics 492:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Michard A, Hoepffner C, Soulaimani A, Baidder L (2008) The Variscan Belt. In Michard A, Saddiqi O, Chalouan A, Frizon de Lamotte D (eds) Continental evolution: the geology of Morocco. Springer, Berlin, pp 65–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mohsine A (2002) L’évolution volcano-tectonique dans le Paléozoïque de la Meseta côtière et des Rehamna. L’exemple du bassin Cambro–Ordovicien de Sidi Saïd Maâchou, du bassin silurien des Oulad Abbou et du bassin viséen de Mechraâ Ben Abbou. Approche pétrographique, géochimique et de pétrologie structurale. PhD Univ Mohammed V Rabat, p 270Google Scholar
  72. Morin P (1962) Les séries volcano-sédimentaires cambriennes du Maroc central. C R Acad Sci Paris 254:2396–2398Google Scholar
  73. Nance RD, Gutiérrez-Alonso G, Keppie JD, Linnemann U, Murphy JB, Quesada C, Strachan RA, Woodcock NH (2010) Evolution of the Rheic Ocean. Gondwana Res 17:194–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ouali H, Briand B, Bouchardon JL, El Maâtaoui M (2000) Mise en évidence d’un volcanisme alcalin intraplaque d’âge Acadien dans la Meseta nord-occidentale (Maroc). C R Acad Sci Paris 330:611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ouali H, Briand B, Bouchardon JL, Capiez P (2003) Le volcanisme cambrien du Maroc central: implications géodynamiques. C R Géosci 335:425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ouanaimi H, Soulaimani A, Hoepffner C, Michard A, Baidder L (2016) The Atlas-Meseta Red Beds basin (Morocco) and the Lower Ordovician rifting of NW-Gondwana. Bull Soc Géol France 187:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ouanaimi H, Fekkak A, Ettachfini EM, El Arabi H, Jouhari A, Ezzouhairi H, Lagnaoui A, Hilali M, Michard A (2017) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000, feuille Amezmiz Notice explicative. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc in pressGoogle Scholar
  78. Ouazzani H, Pouclet A, Badra L, Prost A (2001) Le volcanisme d’arc du massif ancien de l’ouest du Haut-Atlas occidental (Maroc), un témoin de la convergence de la branche occidentale de l’océan panafricain. Bull Soc Géol France 172:587–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pearce JA (1982) Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries. In Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites. Wiley, Chichester, pp 525–548Google Scholar
  80. Pearce JA (2008) Geochemical fingerprinting of oceanic basalts with applications to ophiolite classification and the search for Archean oceanic crust. Lithos 100:14–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pouclet A, Aarab A, Fekkak A, Benharref M (2007) Geodynamic evolution of the northwestern Paleo-Gondwana margin in the Moroccan Atlas at the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary. In: Linneman U, Nance RD, Kraft P, Zulauf G (eds) The evolution of the Rheic Ocean: from Avalonian–Cadomian Active Margin to Alleghanian–Variscan collision, vol 423. Geol Soc Am, Spec Pap, pp 27–60Google Scholar
  82. Pouclet A, Ouazzani H, Fekkak A (2008) The Cambrian volcano-sedimentary formations of the westernmost High Atlas (Morocco): their place in the geodynamic evolution of the West African Palaeo-Gondwana northern margin. In: Ennih N, Liégeois JP (eds) The Boundaries of the West African Craton, vol 297. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 303–327Google Scholar
  83. Pouclet A, Álvaro JJ, Bardintzeff JM, Gil Imaz A, Monceret E, Vizcaïno D (2017a) Cambrian-early Ordovician volcanism across the South Armorican and Occitan domains of the Variscan Belt in France: continental break-up and rifting of the northern Gondwana margin. Geosci Front 8:25–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2016.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pouclet A, El Hadi H, Bardintzeff JM, Benharref M, Fekkak A (2017b) Devonian to Early Carboniferous magmatic alkaline activity in the Tafilalt Province, Eastern Morocco: an Eovariscan episode in the Gondwana margin, north of the West African Craton. J Afr Earth Sci 129:814–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Powell CMcA (1995) Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents?: comment and reply. Geology 23:1053–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Raddi Y (2014) Evolution tectonique polycyclique à la marge du craton oust-africain: le massif de l’Ougnat. PhD Univ. Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat, p 313Google Scholar
  87. Raddi Y, Tahiri M, Derre C, Lecolle M, Baidder L (2006) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000. Feuille Oukhit. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 475. Notice explicative 475 bisGoogle Scholar
  88. Raddi Y, Derré C, Lecolle M, Michard A, Baidder L, Tahiri M (2012) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/50,000. Feuille Bou Adil. Notes Mém Serv géol Maroc 477. Notice explicative 477 bisGoogle Scholar
  89. Remmal T, Mohsine A, El Hatimi N (2009) Mise en évidence de téphrites à néphéline syntectoniques dans le bassin cambrien de Sidi Saïd Maâchou (Meseta côtière, Maroc); signification géodynamique. Est Geol 65:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rollinson H (1993) Using geochemical data: evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Group UK Ltd, London, p 352Google Scholar
  91. Schaer J (1981) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/100,000, feuille Imi N’Tanout. Not Mém Serv géol Maroc 203Google Scholar
  92. Soulaimani A, Bouabdelli M, Piqué A (2003) L’extension continentale au Néo-Protérozoïque supérieur–Cambrien inférieur dans l’Anti-Atlas (Maroc). Bull Soc Géol France 174:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Soulaimani A, Essaifi A, Youbi N, Hafid A (2004) Les marqueurs structuraux et magmatiques de l’extension crustale au Protérozoïque terminal–Cambrien basal autour du massif de Kerdous (Anti-Atlas occidental, Maroc). C R Géosci 336:1433–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Soulaimani A, Michard A, Ouanaimi H, Baidder L, Raddi Y, Saddiqi O, Rjimati EC (2014) Late Ediacaran–Cambrian structures and their reactivation during the Variscan and Alpine cycles in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco). J Afr Earth Sci 98:94–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) Magmatism in the Ocean Basins, vol 42. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 313–345Google Scholar
  96. Tucker RD, McKerrow WS (1995) Early Paleozoic chronology: a review in light of new U–Pb zircon ages from Newfoundland and Britain. Can J Earth Sci 32:368–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Verset Y (1982) Carte géologique du Maroc au 1/100,000, feuille Quasbat-Tadla. Notes Mém Serv géol Maroc 240Google Scholar
  98. von Raumer JF, Stampfli GM (2008) The birth of the Rheic Ocean—early Palaeozoic subsidence patterns and subsequent tectonic plate scenarios. Tectonophyics 461:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Walsh GJ, Benziane F, Aleinikoff JN, Harrison RW, Yazidi A, Burton WC, Quick JE, Saadane A (2012) Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer-El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Precambr Res 216–219:3–62Google Scholar
  100. Young GM (1995) Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of Laurentia related to the fragmentation of two supercontinents? Geology 23:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Pouclet
    • 1
  • Hassan El Hadi
    • 2
  • J. Javier Álvaro
    • 3
  • Jacques-Marie Bardintzeff
    • 4
  • Mohammed Benharref
    • 5
  • Abdelilah Fekkak
    • 6
  1. 1.Longeville-sur-merFrance
  2. 2.University Hassan IICasablancaMorocco
  3. 3.Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM)MadridSpain
  4. 4.University Paris-Sud, Earth Science, UMR CNRS 8148 GEOPS, bât. 504, and University Paris-SaclayOrsayFrance
  5. 5.Cap RessourcesCasablancaMorocco
  6. 6.University Chouaïb DoukhaliEl JadidaMorocco

Personalised recommendations