On the improvement in grey wolf optimization

  • Rohit Salgotra
  • Urvinder SinghEmail author
  • Sakshi Sharma
Original Article


Grey wolf optimization (GWO) is a recently developed nature-inspired global optimization method which mimics the social behaviour and hunting mechanism of grey wolves. Though the algorithm is very competitive and has been applied to various fields of research, it has poor exploration capability and suffers from local optima stagnation. So, in order to improve the explorative abilities of GWO, an extended version of grey wolf optimization (GWO-E) algorithm is presented. This newly proposed algorithm consists of two modifications: Firstly, it is able to explore new areas in the search space because of diverse positions assigned to the leaders. This helps in increasing the exploration and avoids local optima stagnation problem. Secondly, an opposition-based learning method has been used in the initial half of iterations to provide diversity among the search agents. The proposed approach has been tested on standard benchmarking functions for different population and dimension sizes to prove its effectiveness over other state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that the GWO-E algorithm performs better than GWO, bat algorithm, bat flower pollinator, chicken swarm optimization, differential evolution, firefly algorithm, flower pollination algorithm (FPA) and grasshopper optimization algorithm. Statistical testing of GWO-E has been done to prove its significance over other popular algorithms. Further, as a real-world application, the GWO-E is used to design non-uniform linear antenna array (LAA) for minimum possible sidelobe level and null control. Performance of GWO-E for the synthesis of LAA is evaluated by considering the several different case studies of LAA that exists in the literature, and the results are compared with the results of other popular meta-heuristic algorithms like genetic algorithm, ant lion algorithm, FPA, cat swarm optimization, GWO and many more. Numerical results further show the superior performance of GWO-E over original GWO and other popular algorithms.


Grey wolf optimization Numerical optimization Antenna arrays Linear antenna array synthesis 



This research has been funded under Inspire Fellowship (IF-160215) by Directorate of Science & Technology, Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5). Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electronics and Communication Engineering DepartmentThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

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