# Escape velocity: a new operator for gravitational search algorithm

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## Abstract

Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is based on the feature of reciprocal acceleration tendency of objects with masses. The total force, which is formed as an influence of other agents, is an important variable in the calculation of agent velocity. It has been determined that the total force and, thus, the velocity of the agents that are located far away, is low due to the distance. In this case, they continue their search in bad areas, as their velocity is low, which means a decrease in their contribution to optimization result. In this paper, a new operator called “escape velocity” has been proposed which is inspired by the real nature of GSA. It has been suggested that adding the escape velocity negatively will enable the agents that remain far away or outside of group behavior to be included in the group or to be increased in velocity. Thus, the study of perfecting the herd or group approach within the search scope has been carried out. To evaluate the performance of our algorithm, we applied it to 23 standard benchmark functions and six composite test functions. Escape velocity gravitational search algorithm (EVGSA) has been compared with some well-known heuristic search algorithms such as GSA, genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and recently the new algorithm dragonfly algorithm (DA). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were also utilized to execute statistical analysis of the results obtained by GSA and EVGSA. Standard and composite benchmark tables and Wilcoxon signed-rank test and visual results show that EVGSA is more powerful than other algorithms.

## Keywords

Gravitational search algorithm Escape velocity Optimization algorithms## Notes

### Compliance with ethical standards

### Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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