Exploring the spectrum of late effects following radical orchidectomy for stage I testicular seminoma: a systematic review of the literature
Testicular seminomas occur in young men and are highly curable. Toxicities following treatment for men with extensive stage II-III seminomas may cause long-term morbidities. However, it is not clear whether the risk of late effects also increases following surgery for testis-confined seminoma. In this systematic review, we examined the available literature regarding the incidence of late effects in our target population of patients with stage I seminoma treated with orchidectomy alone.
Publications were identified through an electronic literature search using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychInfo databases, identifying cohorts treated for stage I seminoma. Data on late effects were collected and classified as physical or psychological.
Six hundred and four articles were screened to identify 100 studies. In the target population, available evidence suggests no increased risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, or renal dysfunction compared to the general population. Sperm counts were initially lower than an age-matched cohort; however, counts normalised when re-assessed 5 years later. Data were not specifically reported for the target population regarding bone health, second malignancy, hypogonadism, fertility and all psychological domains. Heterogeneity of study design and reporting methods contributed to uncertainty regarding the true incidence and clinical significance of late effects.
The curability of stage I seminoma and the wide range of potential late effects of treatment suggest the need for long-term monitoring alongside standard cancer surveillance. Important data are needed on the prevalence of late effects, specifically related to testicular cancer survivors undergoing surveillance following orchidectomy.
Implications for cancer survivors
Awareness and screening for relevant late effects may prevent further morbidity in men treated for stage I seminoma.
KeywordsSystematic review Seminoma Testicular cancer Late effects Survivorship Germ cell tumour
IDD is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Practitioner Fellowship (APP1102604).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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