Towards Cyberbullying-free social media in smart cities: a unified multi-modal approach

  • Kirti KumariEmail author
  • Jyoti Prakash Singh
  • Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi
  • Nripendra Pratap Rana


Smart cities are shifting the presence of people from physical world to cyber world (cyberspace). Along with the facilities for societies, the troubles of physical world, such as bullying, aggression and hate speech, are also taking their presence emphatically in cyberspace. This paper aims to dig the posts of social media to identify the bullying comments containing text as well as image. In this paper, we have proposed a unified representation of text and image together to eliminate the need for separate learning modules for image and text. A single-layer Convolutional Neural Network model is used with a unified representation. The major findings of this research are that the text represented as image is a better model to encode the information. We also found that single-layer Convolutional Neural Network is giving better results with two-dimensional representation. In the current scenario, we have used three layers of text and three layers of a colour image to represent the input that gives a recall of 74% of the bullying class with one layer of Convolutional Neural Network.


Online social network Cyberbullying TF–IDF Deep learning Convolutional Neural Network 



The first author would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India, for the financial support provided to her during the research work through Visvesvaraya Ph.D. Scheme for Electronics and IT.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirti Kumari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jyoti Prakash Singh
    • 1
  • Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi
    • 2
  • Nripendra Pratap Rana
    • 3
  1. 1.National Institute of Technology PatnaPatnaIndia
  2. 2.School of ManagementSwansea University Bay CampusSwanseaUK
  3. 3.School of ManagementUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

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