A power system restoration method using voltage source converter–high-voltage direct current technology, aided by time-series neural network with firefly algorithm

  • Jan Bhasha ShaikEmail author
  • V. Ganesh
Methodologies and Application


Voltage source converter (VSC)–high-voltage direct current (HVDC) has become a new trend for achieving an efficient and reliable bulk power transmission. The main challenges in VSC-HVDC link are the “soft-start-up” or the restoration of power after the system blackout, with over voltage and less response delay. In this paper, VSC-HVDC link with firefly Levenberg–Marquardt-trained artificial neural network (ANN), termed as ANN-FLM, is proposed to restore the power quickly. The simulation is performed by creating blackout in the system through the introduction of a three-phase fault. The performance analysis is made on VSC-HVDC with ANN-FLM in existing proportional integral controller. The simulated results provide faster restoration and independent control of real and reactive powers. The proposed method minimizes the over voltage to 98% in maximum point, 84% in phase A, 61% in phase B and 82% in phase C, when simulated.


VSC-HVDC Fault Power system restoration Firefly Levenberg–Marquardt NN Soft-start-up 



  1. Ahmadi MA (2011) Prediction of asphaltene precipitation using artificial neural network optimized by imperialist competitive algorithm. J Pet Explor Prod Technol 1(1–2):99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi MA (2012) Neural network based unified particle swarm optimization for prediction of asphaltene precipitation. Fluid Phase Equilib 314:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadi MA, Ahmadi A (2016) Applying a sophisticated approach to predict CO2 solubility in brines: application to CO2 sequestration. Int J Low Carbon Technol 11(3):325–332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmadi MA, Golshadi M (2012) Neural network based swarm concept for prediction asphaltene precipitation due natural depletion. J Pet Sci Eng 98–99:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmadi MA, Shadizadeh SR (2012) New approach for prediction of asphaltene precipitation due to natural depletion by using evolutionary algorithm concept. J Fuel 102:716–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmadi MA, Ahmadi MR, Hosseini SM, Ebadi M (2014a) Connectionist model predicts the porosity and permeability of petroleum reservoirs by means of petro-physical logs: application of artificial intelligence. J Pet Sci Eng 123:183–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmadi MA, Masumi M, Kharrat R, Mohammadi AH (2014b) Gas analysis by in situ combustion in heavy-oil recovery process: experimental and modeling studies. Chem Eng Technol 37(3):409–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmadi MH, Ahmadi MA, Sadatsakkak SA, Feidt M (2015a) Connectionist intelligent model estimates output power and torque of stirling engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 50:871–883. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmadi MA, Soleimani R, Lee M, Kashiwao T, Bahadori A (2015b) Determination of oil well production performance using artificial neural network (ANN) linked to the particle swarm optimization (PSO) tool. Petroleum 1(2):118–132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alb M, Alotto P, Magele C, Renhart W, Preis K, Trapp B (2016) Firefly algorithm for finding optimal shapes of electromagnetic devices. IEEE Trans Magn 52(3):1–4Google Scholar
  11. Arrillaga J, Liu YH, Watson NR (2007) Flexible power transmission: the HVDC options. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Azad SP, Leterme W, Van Hertem D (2016) Fast breaker failure backup protection for HVDC grids. Electr Power Syst Res 138:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Babazadeh D, Muthukrishnan A, Mitra P, Larsson T, Nordstrom L (2017) Selection of DC voltage controlling station in an HVDC grid. Electr Power Syst Res 144:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bahrman M, Bjorklund PE (2014) The new black start: system restoration with help from voltage-sourced converters. IEEE Power Energy Mag 12(1):44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bahrman MP, Johnson BK (2007) The ABCs of HVDC transmission technologies. IEEE Power Energy Mag 5(2):32–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Balaji GN, Subashini TS, Chidambaram N (2015) Detection of heart muscle damage from automated analysis of echocardiogram video. IETE J Res 61(3):236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barsali S, Salvati R, Zaottini R (2009) Use of HVDC links for power system restoration. Electr Power Syst Res 79:973–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhatnagar K, Gupta S (2017) Extending the neural model to study the impact of effective area of optical fiber on laser intensity. Int J Intell Eng Syst 10(4):274–283Google Scholar
  19. Bramhe SS, Dalal A, Tajne D, Marotkar D (2015) Glass shaped antenna with defected ground structure for cognitive radio application. In: International conference on computing communication control and automation, Pune, pp 330–333Google Scholar
  20. Corsi S, Pozzi M (2003) A multivariable new control solution for increased long lines voltage restoration stability during black startup. IEEE Trans Power Syst 18(3):1133–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. He X, Yang XS (2013) Firefly algorithm: recent advances and applications. Int J Swarm Intell 1(1):36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jovcic D, Ooi BT (2010) Developing dc transmission networks using dc transformers. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 25(4):2535–2543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jovcic D, Hertem DV, Linden K, Taisne JP, Grieshaber W (2011) Feasibility of DC transmission networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE ISGT Europe, Manchester, UK, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  24. Korompili A, Wu Q, Zhao H (2016) Review of VSC HVDC connection for offshore wind power integration. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 59:1405–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kota PN, Gaikwad AN (2017) Optimized scrambling sequence to reduce papr in space frequency block codes based MIMO-OFDM system. J Adv Res Dyn Control Syst 12:502–525Google Scholar
  26. Li G, Zhao C, Zhang X, Li G (2007) Research on “Soft Start-up” of VSC-HVDC in power system restoration after blackouts. In: 2nd IEEE conference on industrial electronics and applications, ICIEA 2007, pp 1939–1943Google Scholar
  27. Li S, Zhou M, Liu Z, Zhang J, Li Y (2009) A study on VSC-HVDC based black start compared with traditional black start. In: 2009 International conference on sustainable power generation and supply, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  28. Marichelvam MK, Prabaharan T, Yang XS (2014) A discrete firefly algorithm for the multi-objective hybrid flowshop scheduling problems. IEEE Trans Evol Comput 18(2):301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Montilla-DJesus M, Santos-Martin D, Arnaltes S, Castronuovo ED (2012) Optimal reactive power allocation in an offshore wind farms with LCC-HVdc link connection. Renew Energy 40:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Novak V (2018) Detection of structural breaks in time series using fuzzy techniques. Int J Fuzzy Log Intell Syst 18(1):1–12. MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shi X, Liu B, Wang Z, Li Y (2015) Modeling, control design, and analysis of a startup scheme for modular multilevel converters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(11):7009–7024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Su H, Yong B, Du Q (2016) Hyperspectral band selection using improved firefly algorithm. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett 13(1):68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sunil Kumar BS, Manjunath AS, Christopher S (2016) Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard. Alex Eng J 57:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang H, Ma Y, Cheng J (2013) Soft-start method with small capacitor charged by pulse current and gain-degeneration error amplifier for on-chip DC–DC power converters. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr (VLSI) Syst 21(8):1447–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xing Z, Ruan X, You H, Yang X (2016) Soft-switching operation of isolated modular DC/DC converters for application in HVDC grids. IEEE Trans Power Electron 31(4):2753–2766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang XS (2008) Nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms. Luniver Press, BristolGoogle Scholar
  37. Yang XS (2009) Firefly algorithms for multimodal optimisation. In Proceedings 5th symposium on stochastic algorithms, foundations and applications, vol 5792, pp 169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao C, Li J, Li G (2005) VSC-HVDC control strategy based on respective adjustment of active and reactive power. Autom Electr Power Syst 29(9):20–24Google Scholar
  39. Zheng C, Zhou XX, Li RM (2005) Dynamic modeling and transient simulation for voltage source converter based HVDC. Int Conf Power Syst Technol 29(16):1–5Google Scholar
  40. Zonkoly AME (2015) Renewable energy sources for complete optimal power system black-start restoration. IET Gener Transm Distrib 9(6):531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.A1 Global Institute of Engineering and TechnologyMarkapurIndia
  2. 2.JNTUACEPPulivendulaIndia

Personalised recommendations