Semi-fragile watermarking technique for digital image, as a technology for content authentication, aims at telling malicious tampering from content-preserving operators. However, with the resolution of imaging sensors increasing and the explosive growth of digital images on the internet, before authorization, watermarked images tend to undergo such double-compression environments as: first compression (JPEG/JPEG2000) for release, decoding, application processing (conventional signal processing such as nosing, filtering, cropping, and scaling/security attack/malicious tampering), and second compression (JPEG2000/JPEG) for release again. In this paper, based on rotating vector, we propose a novel watermarking expression method that can describe carrier semantics to a certain extent and its modulation algorithm for digital image, and analyze the stability of the watermarked data theoretically. Then, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for image content authentication to effectively distinguish malicious content manipulation from content-preserving operations in the double-compression application environment, which expands the application scope of content authentication based on watermarking technology.
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This work was supported in part by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant LY18F020003, and in part by the Key Research and Development Program of Zhejiang Province in China under Grant 2019C03138.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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