Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 12385–12400 | Cite as

An adaptive technique to control the load frequency of hybrid distributed generation systems

  • Ch. BhavanisankarEmail author
  • K. R. Sudha
Methodologies and Application


This paper deals with an adaptive technique-based design of load frequency controller for hybrid distributed generation systems. The hybrid system model is consisting of multiple power generating units and energy storage units. The proposed adaptive technique is the modified cuckoo search algorithm and support vector machine (SVM), which is utilized for obtaining the optimal solutions. In this paper, the proposed adaptive technique is utilized for optimized load frequency control (LFC) of a hybrid distributed generation systems model. The studied hybrid distributed generation systems consist of renewable/nonrenewable energy-based generating units such as wind turbine generator, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal power generator, diesel engine generator, fuel cell with aqua-electrolyzer, while energy storage units consist of battery energy storage system, flywheel energy storage system and ultra-capacitor. Here, fractional-order proportional–integral derivative (FOPID) controller is utilized to mitigate any frequency deviation owing to sudden generation/load change. The gain of the FOPID controller is optimized using the proposed adaptive technique. The proposed adaptive method-based LFC is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and analyzed their results. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive technique, this is compared with that of other well-established techniques such as FOPID controller, GA with ANN-FOPID and SVM-FOPID controller. Moreover, the proposed tuned frequency controllers improve the overall dynamic response in terms of settling time, overshoot and undershoot in the profile of frequency deviation and power deviation of the interconnected hybrid power system.


Integrated hybrid power system FOPID SVM Modified CS LFC Frequency deviation and ANN 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

I confirm that the manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration. The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full) unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical and Electronics EngineeringJNT University-KakinadaKakinadaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringAUCE(A), Andhra UniversityVisakhapatnamIndia

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