Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 14, pp 5469–5484 | Cite as

PSO-based improved multi-flocks migrating birds optimization (IMFMBO) algorithm for solution of discrete problems

  • Vahit TongurEmail author
  • Erkan Ülker
Methodologies and Application


In this paper, we proposed an improved migrating birds optimization algorithm to solve discrete problem. It is a metaheuristic search algorithm that is inspired by V formation during the migration of migratory birds. Proposed algorithm has two main modifications on basic migrating birds algorithm. Firstly, multi-flocks are used instead of single flock in order to avoid local minimum. Secondly, these flocks interact with each other for the more detailed search around flock that has got better solutions. This interaction is inspired by particle swarm optimization algorithm. Also, insertion method is used for neighborhood in migrating birds optimization algorithm. As a discrete problem, traveling salesman problem is chosen. Performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on some of symmetric benchmark problems from TSPLIB. Obtained results show that proposed method is superior to basic migrating birds algorithm.


Migrating birds optimization Traveling salesman problem Particle swarm optimization Multi-flocks 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringNecmettin Erbakan UniversityKonyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Computer EngineeringSelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey

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