Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 507–526 | Cite as

Clustering-based Optimized HEED protocols for WSNs using bacterial foraging optimization and fuzzy logic system

  • Prateek GuptaEmail author
  • Ajay K. Sharma
Methodologies and Application


Proficient clustering method has a vital role in organizing sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), utilizing their energy resources efficiently and providing longevity to network. Hybrid energy-efficient distributed (HEED) protocol is one of the prominent clustering protocol in WSNs. However, it has few shortcomings, i.e., cluster heads (CHs) variation in consecutive rounds, more work load on CHs, uneven energy dissipation by sensor nodes, and formation of hot spots in network. By resolving these issues, one can enhance HEED capabilities to a greater extent. We have designed variants of Optimized HEED (OHEED) protocols named as HEED-1 Tier chaining (HEED1TC), HEED-2 Tier chaining (HEED2TC), ICHB-based OHEED-1 Tier chaining (ICOH1TC), ICHB-based OHEED-2 Tier chaining (ICOH2TC), ICHB-FL-based OHEED-1 Tier chaining (ICFLOH1TC), and ICHB-FL-based OHEED-2 Tier chaining (ICFLOH2TC) protocols. In HEED1TC and HEED2TC protocols, we have used chain-based intra-cluster and inter-cluster communication in HEED, respectively, for even load balancing among sensor nodes and to avoid more work load on CHs. Furthermore, for appropriate cluster formation, minimizing CHs variation in consecutive rounds and reducing complex uncertainties, we have used bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA)-inspired proposed intelligent CH selection based on BFOA (ICHB) algorithm for CH selection in ICOH1TC and ICOH2TC protocols. Likewise, in ICFLOH1TC and ICFLOH2TC protocols, we have used novel fuzzy set of rules additionally for CH selection to resolve the hot spots problem, proper CH selection covering whole network, and maximizing the network lifetime to a great extent. The simulation results showed that proposed OHEED protocols are able to handle above-discussed issues and provided far better results in comparison to HEED.


Clustering Wireless sensor networks Load balancing Network lifetime HEED Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm Fuzzy logic system 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringDr B R Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyDelhiIndia

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