Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 1021–1037 | Cite as

Improved metaheuristic-based energy-efficient clustering protocol with optimal base station location in wireless sensor networks

  • Palvinder Singh MannEmail author
  • Satvir Singh
Methodologies and Application


Efficient clustering is a well-documented NP-hard optimization problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Variety of computational intelligence techniques including evolutionary algorithms, reinforcement learning, artificial immune systems and recently, artificial bee colony (ABC) metaheuristic have been applied for efficient clustering in WSNs. Due to ease of use and adaptive nature, ABC arose much interest over other population-based metaheuristics for solving optimization problems in WSNs. However, its search equation contributes to its insufficiency due to comparably poor exploitation cycle and requirement of certain control parameters. Thus, we propose an improved artificial bee colony (iABC) metaheuristic with an improved solution search equation to improve exploitation capabilities of existing metaheuristic. Further, to enhance the global convergence of the proposed metaheuristic, an improved population sampling technique is introduced through Student’s t-distribution, which require only one control parameter to compute and store and therefore increase efficiency of proposed metaheuristic. The proposed metaheuristic maintain a good balance between exploration and exploitation search abilities with least memory requirements; moreover, the use of first-of-its-kind compact Student’s t-distribution makes it suitable for limited hardware requirements of WSNs. Additionally, an energy-efficient clustering protocol based on iABC metaheuristic is presented, which inherits the capabilities of the proposed metaheuristic to obtain optimal cluster heads along with an optimal base station location to improve energy efficiency in WSNs. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering protocol outperforms other well-known protocols on the basis of packet delivery, throughput, energy consumption, network lifetime and latency as performance metric.


Wireless sensor networks Energy-efficient clustering Improved artificial bee colony (iABC) metaheuristic 



The authors acknowledge IKG Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IKG Punjab Technical UniversityKapurthalaIndia

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