Soft Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 24, pp 8177–8186 | Cite as

Multiobjective optimization of the production process for ground granulated blast furnace slags

  • Kang Wang
  • Xiaoli LiEmail author
  • Chao Jia
  • Shengxiang Yang
  • Miqing Li
  • Yang Li
Methodologies and Application


The production process of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) aims to produce products of the best grade and the highest yields. However, grade and yields are two competing objectives which can not be optimized at the same time by one single solution. Meanwhile, the production process is a multivariable strong coupling complicated nonlinear system. It is hard to establish the accurate mechanism model of this system. Considering above problems, we formulate the GGBS production process as an multiobjective optimization problem, introduce a least square support vector machine method based on particle swarm optimization to build the data-based system model and solve the corresponding multiobjective optimization problem by several multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithms. Simulation example is presented to illustrate the performance of the presented multiobjective optimization scheme in GGBS production process.


Ground granulated blast furnace slag Multiobjective optimization MOEA PSO-based LS-SVM 



This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61473034, 61673053), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20130006110008), Beijing Nova Programme Interdisciplinary Cooperation Project (Z161100004916041).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Automation and Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Information TechnologyBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.Centre for Computational Intelligence, School of Computer Science and InformaticsDe Montfort UniversityLeicesterUK
  4. 4.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  5. 5.School of International StudiesCommunication University of China (CUC)BeijingChina

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