Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 63, Issue 12, pp 1693–1706 | Cite as

The nexus between social impacts and adaptation strategies of workers to occupational heat stress: a conceptual framework

  • Victor Fannam NunfamEmail author
  • Kwadwo Adusei-Asante
  • Eddie John Van Etten
  • Jacques Oosthuizen
  • Samuel Adams
  • Kwasi Frimpong
Review Paper
  • 121 Downloads

Abstract

Adverse effects of occupational heat stress in the context of the changing climate on working populations are subtle but considerably harmful. However, social dimensions and impacts of climate change–related occupational heat concerns on workers’ safety and health, productivity and well-being are often overlooked or relegated as minor issues in social impact analyses of occupational heat exposure due to climate change. This paper offers a conceptual framework based on an appraisal and synthesis of the literature on social impacts of climate change–related occupational heat exposure on workers’ safety and health, productivity and social welfare and the quest to localise and achieve sustainable development goals. A sustained global, national, institutional and individual collaborative involvement and financial support for research, improved adaptation and social protection strategies, predominantly in the developing world, where a large number of people work outdoors, can reduce heat exposure and boost the resilience and adaptive capacity of workers to facilitate efforts to achieve sustainable development goals.

Keywords

Adaptive capacity Global warming Work-related heat exposure Social health Sustainable development goals Working populations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the support of the ECU Higher Degree by Research Scholarship (HDRS) for the provision of a PhD scholarship and the Human Research Ethics Committee of ECU (Project Number 17487) for ethical clearance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

484_2019_1775_MOESM1_ESM.docx (203 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 202 kb)

References

  1. Ayyappan R, Sankar S, Rajkumar P, Balakrishnan K (2009) Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India. Glob Health Action 2:58–64 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2060@zgha20.2009.2.issue-s2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balakrishnan K, Ramalingam A, Dasu V, Stephen JC, Sivaperumal MR, Kumarasamy D et al (2010) Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India. Global Health Action:3.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5635
  3. Belyaeva M, Bokusheva R (2018) Will climate change benefit or hurt Russian grain production? A statistical evidence from a panel approach. Clim Chang 149(2):205–217.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-018-2221-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry HL, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T (2010) Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. International Journal of Public Health 55(2):123–132.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-0112-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bridger RS (2003) Introduction to ergonomics. Tylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke M, Hsiang SM, Miguel E (2015) Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature 527(7577):235–239.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15725 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Centres for Disease Control & Prevention (CDCP) (2008) Heat-related deaths among crop workers--United States, 1992--2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 57(24), 649–653. Retrieved on 2/02/2017 from https://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds[]=citjournalarticle_88362_15
  8. Cichon M (2013) The social protection floors recommendation, 2012 (no. 202): can a six-page document change the course of social history? Int Soc Secur Rev 66(3–4):21–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/issr.12017/full CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A, Ball S, Bell S, Bellamy R et al (2009) Managing the health effects of climate change: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission. Lancet 373(9676):1693–1733.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60935-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crowe J, Manuel Moya-Bonilla J, Román-Solano B, Robles-Ramírez A (2010) Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season. Glob Health Action 3(1):5619 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5619@zgha20.2010.3.issue-s3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowe J, Wesseling C, Solano BR, Umaña MP, Ramírez AR, Kjellstrom T, Morales D, Nilsson M (2013) Heat exposure in sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica. Am J Ind Med 56(10):1157–1164.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22204/full CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson DJ, Williamson T, Parkins JR (2003) Understanding climate change risk and vulnerability in northern forest-based communities. Can J For Res 33(11):2252–2261.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies M, Guenther B, Leavy J, Mitchell T, Tanner T (2009) Climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and social protection: complementary roles in agriculture and rural growth? IDS Working Papers 2009(320):01–37.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2040-0209.2009.00320_2.x/full CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delgado-Cortez O (2009) Heat stress assessment among workers in a Nicaraguan sugarcane farm. Glob Health Action 2:2069.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeVries MW, Wilkerson B (2003) Stress, work and mental health: a global perspective. Acta neuropsychiatrica 15(1):44–53.  https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1601-5215.2003.00017.x/full CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dunne JP, Stouffer RJ, John JG (2013) Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming. Nat Clim Chang 3(6):563–566.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dutta P, Rajiva A, Andhare D, Azhar G, Tiwari A, Sheffield P et al (2015) Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers. Indian J Occup Environ Med 19(3):151.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2F0019-5278.174002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleischer NL, Tiesman HM, Sumitani J, Mize T, Amarnath KK, Bayakly AR, Murphy MW (2013) Public health impact of heat-related illness among migrant farmworkers. J Agric Saf Health 19(2):140–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flocks J, Vi Thien Mac V, Runkle J, Tovar-Aguilar JA, Economos J, McCauley LA (2013) Female farmworkers’ perceptions of heat-related illness and pregnancy health. J Agromedicine 18(4):350–358.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2013.826607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: a case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Glob Environ Chang 16(2):145–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frimpong K, Van Etten E, Oosthuzien J, Nunfam VF (2015) Review of climate change adaptation and social protection policies of Ghana: the extent of reducing impacts of climate change and heat stress vulnerability of smallholder farmers. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development (IJSESD) 6(4):1–14. https://www.igi-global.com/article/review-of-climate-change-adaptation-and-social-protection-policies-of-ghana/142144.  https://doi.org/10.4018/IJSESD.2015100101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gasper R, Blohm A, Ruth M (2011) Social and economic impacts of climate change on the urban environment. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3(3):150–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2010.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibson O, Pattisson P (2014) Qatar World Cup: 185 Nepalese died in 2013–official records. Guardian 24 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/24/qatar-2022-world-cup-185-nepalese-workers-died-2013
  24. Haines A, Patz JA (2004) Health effects of climate change. Jama 291(1):99–103.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.1.99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haines A, Smith KR, Anderson D, Epstein PR, McMichael AJ, Roberts I, Wilkinson P, Woodcock J, Woods J (2007) Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change. Lancet 370(9594):1264–1281.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61257-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hanna EG, Kjellstrom T, Bennett C, Dear K (2011) Climate change and rising heat: population health implications for working people in Australia. Asia Pac J Public Health 23(2 Suppl):14S–26S.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539510391457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. In: The contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (WG1 AR5). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp 1–32 Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  29. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2015) Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. In: Edenhofer O, Pichs-Madruga R, Sokona Y, Farahani E, Kadner S, Seyboth K, Adler A, Baum I, Brunner S, Eickemeier P, Kriemann B, Savolainen J, Schlömer S, von Stechow C, Zwickel T, Minx JC (eds) Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, vol 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Kelly PM, Adger WN (2000) Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Clim Chang 47(4):325–352.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005627828199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kjellstrom T (2016) Impact of climate conditions on occupational health and related economic losses: a new feature of global and urban health in the context of climate change. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health 28(2_suppl):28S–37S.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539514568711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kjellstrom T, Crowe J (2011) Climate change, workplace heat exposure, and occupational health and productivity in Central America. Int J Occup Environ Health 17(3):270–281.  https://doi.org/10.1179/107735211799041931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kjellstrom T, McMichael AJ (2013) Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last. Glob Health Action 6:20816.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v6i0.20816 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kjellstrom T, Gabrysch S, Lemke B, Dear K (2009a) The ‘Hothaps’ programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies. Glob Health Action 2:81–87.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kjellstrom T, Holmer I, Lemke B (2009b) Workplace heat stress, health and productivity - an increasing challenge for low and middle-income countries during climate change. Glob Health Action 2:46–51.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v2i0.2047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kjellstrom T, Butler AJ, Lucas RM, Bonita R (2010) Public health impact of global heating due to climate change: potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. International Journal of Public Health 55(2):97–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-0090-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Hyatt O (2011) Increased workplace heat exposure due to climate change: a potential threat to occupational health, worker productivity and local economic development in Asia and the Pacific region. Asian-Pacific Newsletter 18(1):6–11.  https://doi.org/10.1179/107735211799041931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kjellstrom T, Briggs D, Freyberg C, Lemke B, Otto M, Hyatt O (2016a) Heat, human performance, and occupational health: a key issue for the assessment of global climate change impacts. Annu Rev Public Health 37:97–112.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kjellstrom T, Otto M, Lemke B, Hyatt O, Briggs D, Freyberg C, Lines L (2016b) Climate change and labour: Impacts of heat in the workplace climate change, workplace environmental conditions, occupational health risks, and productivity –an emerging global challenge to decent work, sustainable development and social equity. Retrieved on 11/10/2017 from http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/climate-and-disaster-resilience-/tackling-challenges-of-climate-change-and-workplace-heat-for-dev.html
  40. Krishnamurthy M, Ramalingam P, Perumal K, Kamalakannan LP, Chinnadurai J, Shanmugam R, Srinivasan K, Venugopal V (2017) Occupational heat stress impacts on health and productivity in a steel industry in Southern India. Saf Health Work 8(1):99–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2016.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Langkulsen U, Vichit-Vadakan N, Taptagaporn S (2010) Health impact of climate change on occupational health and productivity in Thailand. Glob Health Action 3:5607.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5607@zgha20.2010.3.issue-s3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lao J, Hansen A, Nitschke M, Hanson-Easey S, Pisaniello D (2016) Working smart: an exploration of council workers’ experiences and perceptions of heat in Adelaide, South Australia. Safety Science 82:228–235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.09.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lloyd EL (1994) ABC of sports medicine. Temperature and performance--II: heat. BMJ: British Medical Journal 309(6954):587 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2541424/pdf/bmj00455-0041.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lucas RA, Epstein Y, Kjellstrom T (2014) Excessive occupational heat exposure: a significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers. Extrem Physiol Med 3(1):14.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-7648-3-14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lundgren K, Kuklane K, Gao C, Holmér I (2013) Effects of heat stress on working populations when facing climate change. Ind Health 51(1):3–15.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lundgren K, Kuklane K, Venugopal V (2014) Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India. Global Health Action 7.  https://doi.org/10.3402/Gha.V7.25283
  47. Luo HM, Turner LR, Hurst C, Mai HM, Zhang YR, Tong SL (2014) Exposure to ambient heat and urolithiasis among outdoor workers in Guangzhou, China. Sci Total Environ 472:1130–1136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mahmoudi H, Renn O, Vanclay F, Hoffmann V, Karami E (2013) A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment. Environ Impact Assess Rev 43:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2013.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maloney SK, Forbes CF (2011) What effect will a few degrees of climate change have on human heat balance? Implications for human activity. Int J Biometeorol 55(2):147–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-010-0320-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maté J, Siegel R, Oosthuizen J, Laursen PB, Watson G (2016) Effect of liquid versus ice slurry ingestion on core temperature during simulated mining conditions. Open J Prev Med 6(01):21. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ecuworkspost2013/3416/–30.  https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpm.2016.61002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mathee, A., Oba, J., Rose, A., (2010) Climate change impacts on working people (theHOTHAPS initiative): findings of the South African pilot study. Glob. Health Action3.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5612
  52. McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S (2006) Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet 367(9513):859–869.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68079-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller F (2014) Too hot to handle: assessing the social impacts of extreme heat. Paper presented at the Turning up the Heat: a symposium for SIA practitioners and researchers. http://web.science.mq.edu.au/downloads/sia/fiona-miller.pdf
  54. Mirabelli MC, Quandt SA, Crain R, Grzywacz JG, Robinson EN, Vallejos QM, Arcury TA (2010) Symptoms of heat illness among Latino farm workers in North Carolina. Am J Prev Med 39(5):468–471.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mundial B (2012) Resilience, equity and opportunity: the World Bank’s social protection and labour strategy 2012–2022. Informe de Consultorías, Banco Mundial, Washington DC. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/443791468157506768/Resilience-equity-and-opportunity-the-World-Banks-social-protection-and-labor-strategy-2012-2022
  56. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) (2010) NIOSH: Workplace Safety and Health US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated November (Vol. 18)Google Scholar
  57. Nunfam VF, Adusei-Asante K, Van Etten EJ, Oosthuizen J, Frimpong K (2018) Social impacts of occupational heat stress and adaptation strategies of workers: a narrative synthesis of the literature. Sci Total Environ 643:1542–1552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nunfam VF, Oosthuizen J, Adusei-Asante K, Van Etten EJ, Frimpong K (2019a) Perceptions of climate change and occupational heat stress risks and adaptation strategies of mining workers in Ghana. Sci Total Environ 657:365–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nunfam VF, Van Etten EJ, Oosthuizen J, Adusei-Asante K, Frimpong K (2019b) Climate change and occupational heat stress risks and adaptation strategies of mining workers: perspectives of supervisors and other stakeholders in Ghana. Environ Res 169:147–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parsons K (2014) Human thermal environments: the effects of hot, moderate, and cold environments on human health, comfort, and performance. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pogge T, Sengupta M (2015) The sustainable development goals (SDGs) as drafted: nice idea, poor execution. Wash Int’l LJ 24:571 http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/pacrimlp24&div=27&g_sent=1&casa_token=&collection=journals Google Scholar
  62. Pradhan B, Shrestha S, Shrestha R, Pradhanang S, Kayastha B, Pradhan P (2013) Assessing climate change and heat stress responses in the Tarai Region of Nepal. Ind Health 51(1):101–112.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rhodes CJ (2016) The 2015 Paris climate change conference: COP21. Sci Prog 99(1):97–104.  https://doi.org/10.3184/003685016X14528569315192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rogelj J, Den Elzen M, Höhne N, Fransen T, Fekete H, Winkler H et al (2016) Paris agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 C. Nature 534(7609):631–639.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sahu S, Sett M, Kjellstrom T (2013) Heat exposure, cardiovascular stress and work productivity in rice harvesters in India: implications for a climate change future. Ind Health 51(4):424–431.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2013-0006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schulte PA, Chun H (2009) Climate change and occupational safety and health: establishing a preliminary framework. J Occup Environ Hyg 6(9):542–554.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15459620903066008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schulte P, Bhattacharya A, Butler C, Chun H, Jacklitsch B, Jacobs T et al (2016) Advancing the framework for considering the effects of climate change on worker safety and health. J Occup Environ Hyg 13(11):847–865.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1179388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sett M, Sahu S (2014) Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India. Glob Health Action 7(1):21923.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v7.21923 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Singh S, Hanna EG, Kjellstrom T (2013) Working in Australia’s heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity. Health Promot Int:dat027.  https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dat027
  70. Smith KR, Woodward A, Campbell-Lendrum D, Chadee D, Honda Y, Liu Q et al (2014) Human health: impacts, adaptation, and co-benefits. Climate Change:709–754 https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/WGIIAR5-Chap11_FINAL.pdf
  71. Stoecklin-Marois M, Hennessy-Burt T, Mitchell D, Schenker M (2013) Heat-related illness knowledge and practices among California hired farm workers in the MICASA study. Ind Health 51(1):47–55.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tawatsupa B, Lim LL, Kjellstrom T, Seubsman S-A, Sleigh A, Team TCS (2010) The association between overall health, psychological distress, and occupational heat stress among a large national cohort of 40,913 Thai workers. Glob Health Action 3:5034.  https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v3i0.5034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tawatsupa B, Lim LL, Kjellstrom T, Seubsman S-A, Sleigh A, Team TCS (2012) Association between occupational heat stress and kidney disease among 37 816 workers in the Thai cohort Study (TCS). J Epidemiol 22(3):251–260.  https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20110082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tawatsupa B, Yiengprugsawan V, Kjellstrom T, Berecki-Gisolf J, Seubsman SA, Sleigh A (2013) Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study. Ind Health 51(1):34–46.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. UNICEF (2012) Integrated social protection systems: enhancing equity for children. UNICEF, New York http://socialprotection.org/discover/publications/integrated-social-protection-systems-enhancing-equity-children Google Scholar
  76. United Nations (UN) (2011) The social dimensions of climate change: Discussion draft. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved on 23/10/2017 from https://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/activities/env_degradation/cop17/SDCC-Social-dimensions-of-climate-change-Paper.pdf
  77. United Nations (UN) (2015) Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development New York: United NationsGoogle Scholar
  78. Vanclay F, Esteves AM, Aucamp I, Franks DM (2015) Social impact assessment: guidance for assessing and managing the social impacts of projects. International Association for Impact Assessment, Fargo ND https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/data/UQ_355365/UQ355365.pdf Google Scholar
  79. Venugopal V, Chinnadurai JS, Lucas RA, Kjellstrom T (2015) Occupational heat stress profiles in selected workplaces in India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13(1):89.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Venugopal V, Chinnadurai J, Lucas R, Vishwanathan V, Rajiva A, Kjellstrom T (2016a) The social implications of occupational heat stress on migrant workers engaged in public construction: a case study from Southern India. Int J Constructed Environ 7(2):25–36.  https://doi.org/10.18848/2154-8587/CGP/v07i02/25-36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Venugopal V, Chinnadurai JS, Lucas RA, Kjellstrom T (2016b) Occupational heat stress profiles in selected workplaces in India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:89.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13010089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wesseling C, Crowe J, Hogstedt C, Jakobsson K, Lucas R, Wegman D (2013) Mesoamerican nephropathy: a report from the first international research workshop on men. http://repositorio.una.ac.cr/bitstream/handle/11056/8584/seriesaludytrabajo10.pdf?sequence=1&tnqh_x0026;isAllowed=y
  83. World Meteorological Organization (WMO), & World Health Organization (WHO) (2015) Heat waves and health: guidance on warning-system development. WMO and WHO, Geneva http://www4.unfccc.int/nap/Country%20Documents/General/HeatWavesandHealthGuidance_26July2010.pdf Google Scholar
  84. Wyndham C (1994) A survey of the causal factors in heat stroke and of their prevention in the gold mining industry. J South Afr Inst Min Metall 94(3):165–188Google Scholar
  85. Wyon DP, Wyon I, Norin F (1996) Effects of moderate heat stress on driver vigilance in a moving vehicle. Ergonomics 39(1):61–75.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139608964434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Xiang J, Bi P, Pisaniello D, Hansen A (2014a) Health impacts of workplace heat exposure: an epidemiological review. Ind Health 52(2):91–101.  https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2012-0145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Xiang J, Bi P, Pisaniello D, Hansen A (2014b) The impact of heatwaves on workers’ health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia. Environ Res 133:90–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.04.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Xiang J, Hansen A, Pisaniello D, Bi P (2015) Perceptions of workplace heat exposure and controls among occupational hygienists and relevant specialists in Australia. PLoS One 10(8):e0135040.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xiang J, Hansen A, Pisaniello D, Bi P (2016) Workers’ perceptions of climate change-related extreme heat exposure in South Australia: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 16(1):549.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3241-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zander KK, Botzen WJ, Oppermann E, Kjellstrom T, Garnett ST (2015) Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia. Nat Clim Chang 5(7):647–651.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2623 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Edith Cowan UniversityPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Takoradi Technical UniversityTakoradiGhana
  3. 3.Ghana Institute of Management and Public AdministrationAccraGhana

Personalised recommendations