Temporal dynamics of ground-level ozone and its impact on morbidity in Almaty city in comparison with Astana city, Kazakhstan

  • Aiman S. NyssanbayevaEmail author
  • Alexander V. Cherednichenko
  • Alexey V. Cherednichenko
  • Vladimir S. Cherednichenko
  • Fdez-Arroyabe Pablo
Original Paper


Respiratory diseases are nowadays much related to environmental factors such as air pollution. In this sense, it is considered that the annual and the daily courses of ground-level ozone concentrations affect the respiratory systems. A study of ground-level ozone concentration (GO) in the city of Almaty is developed attending to the general content of ozone in the atmosphere as one of sources of ground ozone. The study analyzed the annual and daily course of total ground-level ozone in Almaty. It is shown that the dynamics of its concentrations depends on many factors such as large-scale circulation in the Central Asian region, solar radiation, local mountain valley circulation, and the time of year. Geographic location, motor vehicles traffic intensity, and some specific synoptic conditions can also dramatically affect the daily course of ground-level ozone, promoting formation of two maximum concentration peaks, and one deep minimum concentration between them. The main maximum was fixated at 1:0 p.m., the secondary one at 1:0 a.m. The main minimum was not stable throughout the year. It was fixated at 7:0 p.m. in cold seasons and at 7:0 a.m. in warm seasons. The mean concentration of ground-level ozone from February to November was higher than average permitted concentrations. During 1–2 months, this measurement was higher than MAC (Maximum Allowable Concentrations). High concentration of GO is related to an increase on the number of cases with respiratory problems mainly in the city of Almaty in Kazakhstan.


Ground-level ozone MAC Inversions Isotherms Pollutants Respiratory diseases 


Funding information

Ministry of Science and Education of Kazakhstan supported this research (АРО5131867).

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Almeidia SP, Casiro E, Calheiros J (2011) Short term association between exposure to ozone and mortality in Oporto, Portugal. Environ Res 111:406–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anenberg SC, West JJ, Fiore AM, Jaffe DA, Prather MJ, Bergmann D, Cuvelier C, Dentener FJ, Duncan BN, Gauss M, Hess P, Jonson JE, Lupu A, MacKenzie IA, Marmer E, Park RJ, Sanderson MG, Schultz M, Shindell DT, Szopa S, Garcia Vivanco M, Wild O, Zeng G (2009) Intercontinental impacts of ozone pollution on human mortality. Environ Sci Technol 43(17):6482–6487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson RW, Butland BK, Dimitroulopoulou C, Heal MR, Stedman JR, Carslaw N, Jarvis D, Heaviside C, Vardoulakis S, Walton H, Anderson HR (2016) Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies. BMJ Open 6:e009493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azevedo JM, Jonsalves FLT, Adrade MF (2011) Long-range ozone transport and its impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the Nord of Portugal. Int J Biometerol 55:187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates DV (2005) Ambient ozone and mortality. Epidemiology 16(4):427–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Dominici F (2014) Who is more affected by ozone pollution? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 180:15–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berman JD, Fann N, Hollingsworth JW, Pinkerton KE, Rom WN, Szema AM, Breysse PN, White RH, Curriero FC (2012) Heath benefits from large-scale ozone reduction in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 120:1404–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bugayev VA et al (1997) Synoptic processes of Central Asia. Tashkent, ed. Acad. of Sciences: 477 (rus)Google Scholar
  9. Carslaw N, Jarvis D, Heaviside C, Vardoulakis S, Walton H, Anderson HR (2016) Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies. BMJ Open 6:e009493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castell N, Mantilla E, Millan M (2006) Analysis of tropospheric ozone concentration on western Mediterranean site: Castellon (Spain). Environ Monit Assess 136:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cherednichenko AV (2010) Climate change in Kazakhstan and the possibility of adaptation due to the available water reserves of cloudiness, Bishkek, p 260 rusGoogle Scholar
  12. Cherednichenko AV (2015) Dynamics of climate in Kazakhstan. The beginning of the cooling era, Almaty, p 235 rusGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherednichenko VS, Cherednichenko AV, Cherednichenko AV, Munaitpasova AN, Sultanova DM (2016) Analysis of ground-based and satellite data of total ozone. Journ Young Scientist 21(125):245–250 rusGoogle Scholar
  14. Chuang GC, Yang Z, Westbrook DG, Pompilius M, Ballinger CA, White CR, Krzywanski DM, Postlethwait EM, Ballinger SW (2009) Pulmonary ozone exposure induces vascular dysfunction, mitochondrial damage, and atherogenesis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 297:L209–L216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Climate Handbook of Kazakhstan (2004) Perennial data. Issue 1-14. Almaty, (rus)Google Scholar
  16. Collection (1991) of sanitary and hygienic standards and methods for the control of harmful substances in environmental objects. Moscow, Roshydromet, 394. (rus)Google Scholar
  17. Demin VI, Beloglazov MI, Elansky NF (2005) Some results of monitoring of ground-level ozone on the Kola Peninsula (1999–2003). J Meteorol Hydrol 10:10–20 rusGoogle Scholar
  18. Dergunov YA, Matveev VS, Milyaev WB (1988) Study of the environmental characteristics of boiler units with instrumental methods. All-union conference methods and controls for atmospheric pollution and industrial emissions and their application. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, pp 244–249 rusGoogle Scholar
  19. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Air quality criteria for ozone and related photochemical oxidants (2006 final); Report no.: EPA/600/R-05/004AFGoogle Scholar
  20. European characterization factors for human health damage due to PM10 and ozone in life cycle impact assessment (2012). Atmos Environ 42(3):441–453Google Scholar
  21. Evtyugina MG, Pio C, Nunes T, Pinho PG, Cosia CS (2007) Photochemical ozone formation et Portugal West coast under sea breeze conditions as assessed by master chemical mechanism model. Atmos Environ 41(10):2171–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forouzanfar MH (2016) GBD risk factors collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 388:1659–1724. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forster C, Stohl A, Wind P, Benedictow A (2005) Intercontinental air pollution transport.// transboundary acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone in Europe Oslo, Norway. MSC-W status Report 1:49Google Scholar
  24. Gray LJ, Dunkerton TJ (1990) The role of the seasonal cycle in the quasi-biennial oscillations of ozone. J Atmos Sci 47:2429–2451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gryparis A, Forsberg B, Katsouyanni K, Analitis A, Touloumi G, Schwartz J, Samoli E, Medina S, Anderson HR, Niciu EM, Wichmann HE, Kriz B, Kosnik M, Skorkovsky J, Vonk JM, Dörtbudak Z (2004) Acute effects of ozone in mortality from the «air pollution and health a European approach» project. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:1080–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helmholtz NF (1962) The mountain-valley circulation of the northern slopes and foothills of the Tian-Shan. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, p 330 rusGoogle Scholar
  27. Jerrett M, Burnett RT, Pope CA 3rd, Ito K, Thurston G, Krewski D, Shi Y, Calle E, Thun M (2009) Long-term ozone exposure and mortality. N Engl J Med 360:1085–1095. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Katsouyanni K, Samet JM, Anderson HR, Atkinson R, Le Tertre A, Medina S, Samoli E, Touloumi G, Burnett RT, Krewski D, Ramsay T, Dominici F, Peng RD, Schwartz J, Zanobetti A, Health Review Committee HEI (2009) Air pollution and health: a European and North American approach (APHENA). Res Rep Health Eff Inst 142:5–90 Ozone long-term exposure O3 summer months (April–September), average of daily maximum 8-h mean over 35 ppb Mortality, respiratory causes B 1.014 (1.005–1.024)Google Scholar
  29. Kondrat’ev KW (1989) Global ozone dynamics. / proceedings of science and technology. Ser. Geomagnetism and high atmospheric layers. vol 19. Moscow: 212 (rus)Google Scholar
  30. Kondratiev KW, Varozos KA (2000) Study of tropospheric ozone in Europe. J Meteorol Hydrol 10:12–23 rusGoogle Scholar
  31. Krizan P, Miksovsky J, Kozubek M, Gengchen W, Jianhui B (2011) Long term variability of total ozone yearly minima and maxima in the latitudinal belt from 20°N to 60°N derived from the merged satellite data in the period 1979-2008. Adv Space Res 48:2016–2022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lebedev SG, Chelibanov VP (1991) Features of measuring concentrations of ozone and luminous gas analyzers in the free atmosphere atmospheric ozone. Collection of scientific papers. St. Petersburg, pp 60–65 (rus)Google Scholar
  33. Liu T, Li TT et al (2013) The short-term effect of ambient ozone on mortality is modified by temperature in Juangzhou, China. Atmos Environ 76:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Massambani O, Andrade MF (1994) Seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone in Säo Paulo (Brazil) metropolitan area. Atmos Environ 28(19):3165–3169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nuvolone D, Petril D, Vollerl F (2018) The effects of ozone on human health. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:8074–8088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peng RD, Samoli E, Pham L, Dominici F et al (2012) Acute effects of ambient ozone on mortality in Europe and North America: results from the APHENA study. Air Qual Atmos Health:1–9Google Scholar
  37. Perov SJ, Hrgian LH (1980) The problem of tropospheric ozone and some results of its measurement. Optics of the atmosphere and ocean, vol 9, pp 1184–1213Google Scholar
  38. Petkov B, Vitale V, Tomasi T et al (2014) Variations in total ozone column and biologically effective solar UV exposure doses in Bologna, Italy during the period 2005-2010. Int J Biometerol 58:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pretto A, Gatti LV, Rogero JR, Jamazaki A, Freitas ED, Dias PL Gilva (2001) Nocturnal maximum ozone concentrations in Sao Paulo city. Available from
  40. Qin L, Gu J, Liang SH et al (2017) Seasonal association between ambient ozone and mortality in Zhengzhou, China. Int J Biometerol 61:1003–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanhueza PA, Reed GD, Davis WT, Miller TL, Smit SM (2002) Assessment of ozone air quality standards and public health impact. Clean Techn Environ Policy 4:79–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santurtun A, Gonzalez-Hidalgo JC, Sanchez-Lorenzo A, Zarrabeitia MT (2015) Surface ozone concentration trends and its relationship with weather types in Spain (2001-2010). Atmos Environ 101:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schwartz J (2005) The year of ozone. Am J Respiz Crit Care Med 193:1077–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schwartz J (2016) How sensitive is the association between ozone and daily deaths to control for temperature? Am J Respiz Crit Care Med 171:627–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sinnhuber VM et al (2006) Large loss of total ozone during the Arctic winter of 1999/2000. Geophys Res Lett 27(21):3473–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Strainbrecht W, Köhler U, Claude H, Weber M, Burrows JP, Van der Qarde RJ (2011) Very high ozone columns at northern midlatitudes in 2010. Geophys Res Lett 38:L06803Google Scholar
  47. Van-Zelm R, Huijbregts MAJ, Den-Hollander HA, Van-Jaarveld HA, Sauter FJ, Struijs J, Van-Wijnen HJ, Van-de-Meet D (2008). Eurohlfn characterization factors for Human health damage due to PM10 and ozone in life cycle impact assesment. Atmos Environ 42(3):441-453Google Scholar
  48. World Health Organization (2006) WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
  49. World Health Organization (2013) Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution—REVIHAAP project: final technical report.
  50. World Meteological Organization (2003). Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Report N17:58Google Scholar
  51. Zhadin EA (1999) Long-term variations of ozone and atmospheric circulation. J Meteorol Hydrol 2:68–80 rusGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aiman S. Nyssanbayeva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander V. Cherednichenko
    • 1
  • Alexey V. Cherednichenko
    • 1
  • Vladimir S. Cherednichenko
    • 1
  • Fdez-Arroyabe Pablo
    • 2
  1. 1.Al-Farabi Kazakh National UniversityAlmatyKazakhstan
  2. 2.Geography DepartmentGeobiomet, University of CantabriaSantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations